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|Tanjung, Abode of Peace|
Hǎijiǎo', hépíng de jūmín
Tanjung, maka tempat kediaman yang aman
Tuánjié jiùshì lìliàng
Malay:'"Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu
English: '"Unity Is Strength
Royal anthem: 皇家礼炮
Tabik hormat diraja (Royal Salute)
Location of Tanjung (coloured green)
|Ethnic groups (2015)||
|Demonym||noun: Tanjungese(s) adjective:Tanjungese|
|Government||Federal constitutional monarchy|
|Syed Abdullah Yaakob (PDR)|
|Royal Chamber of Advisers|
|Royal Chamber of Representatives|
• British Occupation
• Civil War
|October 14th 1948 - March 5th 1954|
• Independence from the United Kingdom
|13th September 1948|
|337,287 km2 (130,227 sq mi) (40th)|
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|$1,342.17 billion (19th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|$700.744 billion (19th)|
• Per capita
high · 71st
|Time zone||LKST (UTC+6)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Tanjung, Abode of Peace (Chinese: 海角，和平的居民; Hǎijiǎo, hépíng de jūmín; Bahasa Malaysia: Tanjung, maka tempat kediaman yang aman) more commonly referred to as Tanjung (海角; Hǎijiǎo) is a nation located in Southeast Asia divided into two sections -Peninsula Tanjung bordering Thailand and Tanjungese Borneo bordering Indonesia. Tanjung shares maritime borders with Vietnam and Hani. Although currently a federal constitutional monarchy under the Qiao dynasty Tanjung has been ruled by various groups in its long history. Tanjung's ethno-religious diversity means that it is commonly seen as a plurinational state.
Tanjung first housed human inhabitants in Palaeolithic times, with its housing various medieval dynasties and kingdoms, including the Langkasuka, one of the largest dynasties in maritime Southeast Asia. Tanjung was directly occupation by various Muslim empires such as the Malacca Sultanate and the Bruneian Empire, with traders from the various other cultures help spread Buddhism, Hinduism Confucianism and Islam across Tanjung, although the native religion Khalisism remained dominant. In the 1600's the Qing dynasty enforced suzerainty over Tanjung installing the Qiao dynasty to rule over the region. The dynasty of Qiao unified large portions of the islands in 1666, and ruled until Tanjung became a protectorate of Britain around 1830, with the monarchy being subservient to British interests. Tanjung had previously housed Spanish and Portuguese trading outposts. During World War Two Tanjung was occupied by Japan, and in 1945 Tanjung entered civil war after a communist insurgency erupted in East Tanjung, with the Workers' Party of Tanjung attempting to launch a communist revolution in Tanjung, which was defeated by British and Tanjungese forces. Tanjung became independent from Britain in 1954. Up until 1993, Tanjung was ruled by a dominant minority of Chinese and the Tanjungese National Party with the majority Islamic Malay people discriminated against - however, since the 1990’s Malays have started to play more of a role in political and economic life. Since the 1950's the city state of Singapore has retained large amounts of autonomy from the rest of Tanjung, resulting in Singapore to have one of the highest living standards in the world compared to the rest of Tanjung.
Tanjung has steadily grown both economically and politically since its independence, with the fourth highest human development indicator in Southeast Asia. A newly industrialized country, Tanjung is famous for its exports of jade, gems, rice and natural gases as well as dealing in the telecommunications, banking and technology industries and cloths and electronics manufacturing and has been listed as part of the Next Twelve economies. However ethnic tensions, poor working and living conditions and inadequate wealth distribution have earned Tanjung criticism in recent years by foreign powers. Tanjung is one of the world’s six federal monarchies with 14 provinces, two crown territories and a special administrative city (Singapore), with each ultimately answering to the overall monarch. Tanjung is part of the United Nations, and has been a major ally to the Western world. Tanjung is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations.
Tanjung is split into 14 autonomous republics, two crown territories and one special administrative city-republic in a system of asymmetric federalism. Special administrative city-republics have autonomy in all but foreign and defence affairs, whilst crown territories are directly ruled by the royal family.
|Flag||Emblem||State||Capital||Population||Total Area (km²)||Part|
|Johor Darul Ta'zim||Johor Bahru||3,553,600||19,210||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Kedah Darul Aman||Alor Setar||2,071,900||9,500||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Brunei Darussalam||Bandar Seri Begawan||415,717||5,765||East Tanjung|
|Kelantan Darul Naim||Kota Bharu||1,718,200||15,099||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Malacca||Malacca City||872,900||1,664||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus||Seremban||1,098,400||6,686||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Pahang Darul Makmur||Kuantan||1,623,200||36,137||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Perak Darul Ridzuan||Ipoh||2,477,700||21,035||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Perlis Indera Kayangan||Kangar||246,000||821||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Penang||George Town||1,663,000||1,048||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Sabah||Kota Kinabalu||3,543,500||73,631||East Tanjung|
|Selangor Darul Ehsan||Shah Alam||5,874,100||8,104||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Terengganu Darul Iman||Kuala Terengganu||1,153,500||13,035||Peninsular Tanjung|
|Flag||Emblem||State||Capital||Population||Total Area (km²)||Part|
|Kuala Lumpur||Kuala Lumpur||1,768,000||243||Peninsular Tanjung|
Special Administrative City-Republic
|Flag||Emblem||State||Capital||Population||Total Area (km²)||Part|
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Tanjung is a federal absolute monarchy, being made up of 14 autonomous republics, 2 crown territories and a special administrative city state that form a loose federation around an overall monarch, which draws authority from the Royal Decree of Tanjung, Tanjung Independence Act, 1954 and Tanjung Federation Act, 1957 with Tanjung having an uncodified constitution. Since the end of the Cold War and the appointment of the current Maharani Tian Yinling Tanjung has become much more democratic.
The 14 governors of provinces, premier of Singapore, First Minister and monarch form the Royal Council of Tanjung, which is the highest legislative and executive body in Tanjung. A majority of members (eight and above) must approve of any decision made by another member. The reigning monarch officially has the power to veto decisions by Royal Council, but in reality this power is purely ceremonial. Often the Royal Council meets once a year to discuss issues of national importance and has become a much more ceremonial body. The Royal Council whilst retaining the power to draft and repel laws does this very little with the Parliament ultimately makes the majority of legislative decisions with the Royal Council often making simple amendments.
Below the Royal Council is the main executive branch known as the Council of Ministers of Tanjung, which consists of a small cabinet of elected ministers who often serve five year terms. The Assembly often deals with the daily administrative duties of Tanjung. Ministers are elected from the political parties of Tanjung, with the winning political party having a majority in the Assembly. The Council is led by the First Minister of Tanjung, who is also the head of government.
The Tanjung is a bicameral body, with the upper house being the Royal Chamber of Advisers and the lower house being the Royal Chamber of Representatives. The Advisory Chamber is an unelected body of 110 members who are appointed by the monarch and provincial assemblies, whilst the Representatives Chamber is made up of 418 elected representatives. The parliament functions theoretically as the main unit in legislative matters although in practice their powers are limited by the Royal Council. The parliament have the power to draft laws to be made, amended, or repelled, but ultimately the Royal Council must approve of the draft before it can be passed. The Parliament is formally led by the monarch of Tanjung; however often the Speaker of each house acts in their stead. Currently the ruling party of Tanjung is the People's Democratic Party with the main opposition being the Tanjungese Nationalist Party and the Islamic Malay Party. Tangjungese political culture is rooted in ethnic divides, with the PDP and IMP being supported by ethnic Malays and the UTNP ethnic Chinese, whilst major political issues being focused on regional development, federalism and the issues of ethnic minority rights.
The ruling monarch of Tanjungis both the head of state and the head of government, although they do not hold complete power over the nation, as not only does the monarchs of each province granted a large degree of autonomy but in practice the Royal Council holds most power. The monarch mainly functions as a ceremonial figurehead of the nation with the Royal Decree naming the monarch as a "first among equals". The ruling monarch is a hereditary position, inherited by the first born child of the previous holder of the title if they are over the age of 18 (if not a regent will serve in their place until they come of age). The current monarch, Maharani Tian Yinling, is the first female to hold office. The royal family is Qiao dynasty. According to Tanjungese tradition, the monarch is either known as the Maharajah if male or the Maharani if female.
The monarchs deputy is the Crown Prince, who is often the heir apparent. However like the monarch if the Crown Prince is below 18 the oldest direct male relative will take their place. The Crown Prince plays a largely ceremonial role compared to the monarch. The current Crown Prince is Yinling's brother Xiaoshun, who will serve as such until 2022, where Yinling's son Xiannian will take his place. In each state a governor appointed by the monarch of the province enacts the monarchs rule.
People's Democratic Party: 186 seats
Tanjungese National Party: 56 seats
Islamic Malays Party: 33 seats
People's Action Party: 28 seats
Borneo People's Party: 10 seats
United Indian Party: 5 seats
Communist Party of Tanjung (Maoist): 4 seats
Islamic Republican Party: 3 seats
Bumiputera Union: 3 seats
Workers' Party of Singapore: 1 seat
Independent: 4 seats
Tanjung has had a multi-party system with a first-past-the-post voting system. However, two parties have dominated the political scene, the Tanjungese National Party (HGD) and the People's Democratic Party (PDP). The HGD ruled the country from 1952-1997 using electoral fraud to maintain in office. The HGD were a big-tent party that supported tridemism, unionism and royalism, having internal right-wing neoliberal and left-wing social democratic wings. The HGD mainly court their support from ethnic Chinese who through gerrymandering and electoral fraud were able to rule as a dominant minority until 1997. The HGD are a conservative, nationalist party that currently support economic liberalism and a pro-Western foreign policy. During the 1950's the HGD became more comfortable with democratic institutions supporting state sponsored capitalism and welfarist policies but still championed royalism and alleged anti-Malay and anti-Islamic policies. Since the 1990's the HGD have supported more neoliberal policies alongside a less racist form of civic nationalism, but are still perceived as a "Chinese first" party. They have since 1952 been dominated by the Jhou family, a political dynasty with all leaders since 1952 being from the family.
The other main party is the PDP, which supports social democracy, Islamic socialism and multi-racialism alongside a more Asian focused foreign policy. The PDP are currently in government, with most of its support coming from ethnic Malays people and other ethnic minorities as the PDP champion a non-ethnic form of nationalism traditionally supporting positive discrimination. The PDP currently form a majority government, with their voter base being ethnic Malays and Hui Chinese.
The third party is the Islamic Malays Party, formed in the 1990's and holding government from 1997-2006. The IMP supports Islamic democracy, centrist, welfarist economic policies and social Islamism with a pan-Islamic, anti-west foreign policy. The IMP were a major component of the democracy movement in the 1990's, and under the leadership of Khaled Haji Razak became the largest party, courting support from ethnic Malay's. After 2006 the IMP has been in decline.
Uniquely, Singapore has a separate party system than the rest of Tanjung. Since 1954 the People's Action Party has dominated Singaporean politics, but due to a agreement first with the HGD and then other parties has never run in elections outside of Singapore and vice-versa. The PAP is an authotarian party emphasising pragmatism and meritocracy. The only other Singaporean party to win seats in a national election is the centre-left Workers' Party of Singapore.
Tanjung use a Civil law system mixed with elements of religious law. The Royal Court of Tanjung acts as the countries supreme court, with the Chief Justice leading such a court, who is appointed by the monarch. Below the Royal Court stands the 14 Provincial Courts, with one located in each province. Finally there are religious courts, civil courts and criminal courts.
Both capital and corporal punishment are legal in Tanjung, normally being reserved for crimes such as murder, rape, assault, and causing grievous bodily harm. Corporal punishment has also reportedly been used on those who have committed crimes that go against religious law - this is not condoned by the court. Often capital punishment is carried out via hanging or firing squad. Since 2003, Muslims are required to go to Sharia courts for legal matters.
Foreign relationsTanjung's foreign policy has been largely pro-western since independence in 1945, alongside emphasis being placed on its neighbours in Southeast Asia. Recent foreign policy has been designed to be more independent and neutralist in international affairs as well as to capitalise on Tanjung's increasing economic growth. Tanjung is a member of several international organisations including United Nations, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Commonwealth of Nations, WTO, APEC, IMF, WBG, ADB, East Asia Summit, ACD, PEMSEA, Group of 15 and the Colombo Plan. Tanjung's foreign policy is handled by the Ministry of International Relations which is headed by International Relations Minister Sao Hkun Leng.
Traditionally Tanjung was seen as a client state of either Islamic dynasties until the 1600's when it became under the suzerainty of Chinese dynasties although it always remained an independent state. This ended in 1885 when Tanjung came under the suzerainty of the United Kingdom, becoming part of the British Empire. Following Tanjung's independence in 1954 and the Cold War starting in earnest Tanjung was seen by the United States and Britain as a frontier state against communism, with the country helping found the the Commonwealth and adopting a pro-western foreign policy taking an aggressively anti-communist and anti-socialist with many affiliated with communist parties being oppressed.Up until 1988 Tanjung recognised the Republic of China and supported anti-communist forces in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. However, following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 Tanjung began normalising relations with former communist countries as well as establishing relations with communist countries such as North Vietnam and China, recognising the PRC over the ROC in 1988. Since then Tanjung's foreign policy has become more balanced as relations have been greatly improved with non-western countries.
Since independence in 1954 Tanjung has maintained close cooperation with the United Kingdom, who remains one of the largest international investor in Tanjung. Tanjung has been commonly seen as one of the most pro-British countries in Asia with many joint British-Rajian businesses dating back to the British Empire still residing in Tanjung. Tanjungese leaders have constantly emphasised the importance of Anglo-Tanjungese relations, with Tanjung remaining one of the largest purchasers of British goods, most prominently weapons. Since 1954 Tanjung has also become a major ally to the Conference of American States, most notably the United Commonwealth and Rainier who has invested billions of dollars into Tanjung's infrastructure and military. Both the UK and American nations regarded Tanjung as a frontline state against the expansion of communism during the Cold War and thus worked closely with the Tanjungese royal family, military and intelligence services. Tanjung maintains these links as well as close economic ties with Anglo-America. Tanjung has recently been attempting to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership to further its economic links with the CAS. Tanjung has presented itself as a key ally to the CAS in the War on Terror, although some American and British policymakers has voiced concerns that increasing Islamisiation in Tanjung has led to a rise in Islamic terrorism.
Tanjungese relations with its neighbours have often been contentious. Traditionally, Tanjung and Indonesia have seen each other as regional rivals with Indonesia launching the Indonesian-Tanjungese confrontation in 1963-66. The end of the Cold War has seen a cooling in tensions, although Tanjung still accuses Indonesia of supporting insurgent groups and vice versa. Tanjung's relations with India have often been positive with India regarding Tanjung as its gateway into Southeast Asia. Despite Yanjung being solidly anti-communist in the Cold War, it largely tolerated the social democratic Indian National Congress government, which declined from supporting ethnic/communist insurgencies within Tanjung like Indonesia and China did. As such, relations between Tanjung and India have often been positive.
Sino-Tanjungese relation have often been tense. Tanjung under British rule supported the Yunnan and Sichuan warlords and later the Empire of Japan in an attempt to keep China weak, opposing the efforts of the Guomindang to reunite China. However following the Chinese Communist Revolution Tanjung started to support the GMD, recognising their government in Taiwan over the new communist government in Beijing. During the Cold War Tanjung supported anti-communist forces in China (such as the Chushi Gangdruk) whilst China supported the Workers' Party of Tanjung and ethnic nationalist groups. However in 1977 Tanjungand China started to cooperate with each, culminating in Tanjung to recognise the PRC in 1984. China itself has looked to the policies of Singaporean Premier Lee Kuan Yew in its economic development. Since then Tanjung and China have become firm allies, with China in 2001 becoming the largest foreign investor in Tanjung, with the new countries having strong economic and political cooperation. However, the current government has taken a hard line in regards to China in regards to the South China Sea dispute.
Since the 1920's Tanjung has had close relations with Japan. Unlike many Asian nations Tanjung continues to maintain a positive view on Japan, viewing their actions in World War Two as helping ensure Tanjungese independence, bar in Singapore. Tanjung has often supported Japan in territorial disputes and continues to maintain strong economic relations. Tanjung has also had positive relations with the Hani, Korea, and Thailand, whom all were united during the Cold War by opposition towards communism. Economic and political relations remain strong between Rajia and those countries alongside South Vietnam and East Timor.
Tanjung has never recognised Israel, stating it will only establish relations with Israel when a sovereign Palestinian state is created. As such it has good relations with Islamic countries, especially Pakistan, Turkey and Egypt. Tanjung has often supported Islamic countries in international disputes, and is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Tanjung came to international prominence during the Bosnian War after it let in a large amount of Bosniak refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and actively supported Bosnian independence.
Tanjung's military is headed by the monarch, who serves as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. However, usually the bulk of military command is carried out by the National Royal Guard, a committee of military leaders appointed by the monarch. The National Royal Guard preside over the four main divisions of the Tanjung's armed forces. These divisions consist of the Royal Territorial Guard (land forces) the Royal Naval Guard (sea forces), Royal Ariel Guard (air forces) and the Royal Coast Guard (Maritime Security).
Conscription into military service is enforced for all male citizens from the ages of 18-21, with the allotted service time normally numbering around two years. Conscientious objection is taken into account with any objectors being alternatively drafted into non-combatant roles. If a citizen refuses military service altogether or attempts to avoid conscription they are fined, jailed and then sent to serve double their assigned service time. Students are permitted to finish their studies before entering service. Those who hold dual citizenship must also be drafted.
Since 1953 Tanjung has had a nationwide universal primary and secondary education system, with education being compulsory until the age of 18 after which there exists non-compulsory tertiary education. Education is divided between state schools (which themselves are divided between grammar, secondary technical and secondary modern schools) and private institutions. All schools and universities are overseen or controlled by the Ministry of Education and Research, with the current Education Minister being Nyan Myat. Whilst the provinces have the rights to set their own grading system and alter the curriculum, ultimately the federal government manages the schooling system and "general curriculum itself". Rajia first adopted a semi-universal education system in 1925, with the early adoption of such a system being credited for ensuring that Rajia has maintained consistent economic growth thanks to the majority of the populace being educated and literate.
Prior to 1941, education in Tanjung was limited solely to the elite within Tanjungese society alongside Khalist and Buddhist monks. In 1941 as part of his modernisation programme and in order to indoctrinate the youth of Tanjungese First Minister Ku Yun-suan built and created many public schools mainly in the Kula Lumpa region which taught ethnic Tanjungese children literacy and mathematics. Whilst it was not an entirely universal system (some rural children alongside those of ethnic minorities found it difficult to enter schools) in did lead to a majority of Tanjungese youth by 1958 to be literate (around 61%). In 1953 Tanjungese First Minister Jhou Ying-jeou passed the Tripartite Education Reform Act 1953, which reformed the Tanjungese state school system into a model almost identical to the former British Tripartite system, which was intended to promote a meritocratic system. In 1999 First Minister Khaled Haji Razak implemented a system of positive discrimination that made it easier for students from Malay and native backgrounds to enter certain schools, thus limiting the discriminatory policies in the school system introduced under successive HGD governments. This led to a steady rise in literacy rates, which reached 98.1% in 2008.
Tanjungese students undertake primary education between the ages of 4-11, with kindergarten lasting from 4-5 and Grades 1-5 from the ages of 5-11. Initially between the ages of 4-7 Tanjungese students learn Mandarin Chinese, mathematics, science and social studies (usually a combined course of history, geography and religious studies). Depending on the province, another language is sometimes taught (eg. in Malay dominated states the Malaysian language is taught). Physical education (whilst not being graded) is also taught. Art and music at introduced at the age of 8, whilst social studies are split up between the ages of 8-11. At the age of 11 at Grade 5 students take Primary Level Examinations (PLE's; based on the former British eleven plus exams). PLE's effectively function as entrance exams for the tripartite secondary system.
The results of the PLE's determines if a student is admitted to one of the three forms of secondary school, which lasts from the ages of 11-18. Each school is designed to facilitate students needs and determines the general career path that they will undertake in the future, equipping them with the skills necessary to enter certain types of work.
- Grammar schools cater to students who perform well in academic subjects. They provide the best educational opportunities and often teach skills vital for middle and upper incomes jobs. Grammar school subjects range from Mandarin Chinese, Malaysian, advanced mathematics, sciences, social sciences, the arts and foreign languages. Students complete grammar school education by taking Ordinary Level Examinations (OLE's).
- Secondary Technical Schools are intended to teach students in technical expertise in subjects such as mathematics, science, engineering and mechanics. Secondary Technical Schools provide their students with the ability to enter the engineering, industrial and scientific industries with greater ease. Students complete STS's education after taking Technical Level Examinations (TLE's).
- Secondary Modern Schools are intended to deliver a mix of academic and practical subjects, although it is often stated that they do not provide as good educational opportunities as grammar schools and STS's. Students within SMS's are given the option of taking either OLE's, TLE's or Combined Examinations (CE's; a mix of OLE's and TLE's) depending on the view of their teachers.
The film industry in Tanjung at first struggled to gain a foothold as an entertainment medium. In its early years Tanjungese films were a small industry mainly taking cues from India and Britain/ During the seventies Tanjung's film industry started to be on the rise, with critically acclaimed films such as The Man from Kula Lumpa being released. It is thought that due to the economic boom Tanjung experienced more citizens were able to spend disposable income on going to see films. Abroad Tanjungese films were normally received positively thanks to creative direction and strong acting. Recently film circles have noted Tanjungese film is facing a resurgence thanks to more laxed censorship laws, with a wider range of genres starting to gain popularity.
Tanjung has a proud tradition in theatre, which often incorporates dance, music and dialogue that is more often then not improvised. Traditional theatre often revolves around traditional mythology, as well as themes of romance. In more recent years plays have focussed more around social and political events, with the social-political turmoil of recent Tanjungese history being a popular basis for many stories. However Tanjungese theatre has seen a decline in popularity due to the more accessible and affordable nature of film.