FANDOM


Temeschburg
—  Capital city  —
Capital District of Temeschburg
Nickname(s): "The City of Flowers, The Little Vienna"
Motto: Heart of Unity
Coordinates: 45°45′N 21°13′E
Sovereign state Flag of the Banat Principality The Banat
Cantons Temesch Canton
City type Special City-District and County
Urban region Greater Temeschburg
Named for Temesch River
City Hall Temeschburg City Hall
Government
 - Type Strong Mayor-council-commission
 - Mayor Zladko Otratovic (S)
 - City Council András Iuhasz, President
Elevation 90 m (300 ft)
Population (2011)
 - Total 568,909
 - Est. (2016) 589,876
 - Demonym Temeschburger (de), timișorean (ro), temesvári (hu), тамишградки (sr)
Time zone Central European Time (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Code 300001-300990
Call code 0256 / 0356

Temeschburg, formally known as the Capital City of Temeschburg is the capital of the Principality of the Banat and of the canton of Temesch. It has been the capital of the Banat since 1918, when the country was founded. With over 500.000 residents, Temeschburg is the Banat's most populous city. Temeschburg is located entirely within the Banatian Plain and is the center of the densely-populated Greater Temeschburg Area. The Greater Temeschburg Area consists of several large satellite towns, and numerous bedroom communities, which are linked to Temeschburg economically, culturally, and politically. The Greater Temeschburg Area had a population of 950,000 in 2016.

Founded as a fortress sometime in the 10th century, the citadel became reknown during it's brief serving as capitol of Hungary during the reign of Charles I of Hungary from 1315 to 1323. Subsequently, Temeschburg got city rights and became a small city in the Banat region of the Kingdom of Hungary. At the forefront of the fight against the Ottoman Turks, the city was besieged four times by Ottoman troops. It became an important center for the Ottoman Turks and later the Austrians, before becoming the capital of the Danube Swabian-led Banatian Principality.

Temeschburg is considered one of Europe's growing global cities and is listed as an beta+ city due to its great importance to the Central European market and is the primary economic center of the Banat. It is home to the Temeschburg Stock Exchange and controls the riverrine port of Temeschburg. In addition, Temeschburg will be one of the 13 host cities of the UEFA European Championship 2020 and will be European capital of culture in 2021, along with Elefsina and Cluj-Napoca.

All three branches of the Banatian federal government including the National Diet, the Crown (Huniade Castle), the Prime Minister (Florimund Mercy House), and the Supreme Court are all located in Porciúncula. The Diet's Building, the Supreme Court Building, and the buildings of various ministries, agencies, and federal facilities are located throughout the city, with most within the historic center. Dually functioning as the national capital and the cantonal capital of Temesch, all three branches of the subservient province including the Cantonal Legislature, prefect, and Cantonal Supreme Court are located in the city.

Etymology

The name Temeschburg is the German rendition of the Hungarian name, Temesvár. The first known uses of the city name were made in chronicles written in Latin, where the city appears as Castrum Temesiensis or Demesiensis. The fortress was named so due to it lying close to the Temesch river on one of it's major neighbours, the Bega River. As the centuries progressed, the many nationalities living in the city began translating the Hungarian name into their own language, creating their own name for the city. The modern German form of Temeschburg was introduced in 1921 in an effort to appease the non-Hungarian population with a new, less-Hungarian sounding form of the German name, which up until then was Temeschwar, a loose phonetic transcription of the Hungarian Temesvár.

History

Historical affiliations

Early Middle Ages

The earliest signs of settlement in the region come from a 10th century community of warlords springing up around the modern Opera House. The findings include a graveyard where various pagan and Christian graves were found, many of the pagan graves having offerings similar to those of the pagan Hungarian warlords.

The settlements were at that time in the area of the Duchy of Glad and later the Duchy of Achtum, two duchies which were fiefs to the Bulgarian Empire. The settlement eventually shrunk and the graveyard was abandoned.

Kingdom of Hungary

The Hungarian kings began reenforcing their hold on the Banat, where lawlessness was quite prevalent due to the regional capitol being confined to Tschanad, the region's bishopric and seat of Gerard of Czanad. Thus, the Castrum Temesiensis, translated into English to Fortress on the Temesch (which is an ironic name, considering the fortress sat on the river Bega, not the Temesch) became the Hungarian Temesvár. It was sacked by the Mongols in 1241, but was swiftly rebuilt afterwards

In 1315, King Charles I of Hungary moved his court to Temesvár due to several nobles not accepting his rule and conquest. He built a castle near the fortress, over which was built today's Huniade Castle, the seat of the princely family. From his seat at Temesvár, he conquered Hungary and then finally moved the capitol away 8 years later to Buda.

The city was settled by various traders and peasants, including Ragusans and Bulgarians. They became guest settlers who integrated as burghers of the newly-made city. Thus began the multicultural history of Temeschburg.

The city began being at the forefront of the struggle against the Ottoman Turks in the 14th to 16th centuries. Crusaders had rallied their troops there before the Battle of Nicopolis in 1393. John Hunyadi, regent of Hungary, rebuilt the fortress at Temesvár stronger than ever and built the modern-day Huniade Castle in the mid-15th century and the city had faced four sieges by the Turks successfully: in 1462, 1476, 1491 and in 1522.

The city entered the annals once again as the largest peasant revolt in Hungarian history was crushed outside the walls of Temesvár in 1514 and their leader György Dózsa was tortured and killed in the city, along with 70,000 other prisoners.

The city fell to the Ottoman Turks in October 1551, following more attempts to gain the vital fortress after the Battle of Mohács in 1526.

Ottoman Rule

During Ottoman rule, Temeşvar as it was named by the Turks was rebuilt and deveolped slowly. It was one of the two main fortresses of the Ottoman Empire, along with Belgrade in the fight against the Austrians. However, the city suffered stagnation and the countryside was depopulated as a result.

Due to it's location, the city was a prime target for attacks by the Habsburg-oriented Transylvanian Princes and freedom fighters and thus had long suffered attacks and strife, both within the city and in it's countryside. 

Early Austrian Rule

After the Siege of Temeşvar in 1716 lasted only a few days, but the city fell to the troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy. The commander of the Banat of Temeschwar was Claudius Florimund Mercy.

After the Treaty of Passarowitz, Temeschwar was rebuilt and colonized with Germans, Frenchmen and Italians, as was the rest of the Banat. The city's fortress was rebuilt in the then-modern Vauban-style and became one of the main cities in the Banat region. Governor Mercy had drained the swamps of the Bega and created the modern Bega Canal, which created fertile land around the city, draining thus the swamps that existed there previously. Sattelite towns were created and the city prospered

The city was looted and sacked by the Ottomans in 1788 during the Austro-Turkish War of 1788.

19th Century

During the Revolutions of 1848, the Hungarian army under General Józef Bem attacked Temesvár, which was garrisoned by troops loyal to the Habsburg monarchy.

20th and 21st Century

Geography

See also: Greater Temeschburg Area and Temesch Canton

Cityscape

The entire city is formally divided into 12 different districts (Old City, Fabrik, Elizabethstadt, Josefstadt, Mehallen, Kischoden, Freidorf, Kardosch, Neugiroden, Rote Czarda, Neusentesch and Altgiroden) including many distinct neighborhoods.

Landmarks

Significant landmarks throughout the city include the Huniade Castle, the Diet's Building, the National Opera of the Banat, the Temeschburg Orthodox Cathedral, St. George's Dome, the Theresia Bastion, the Banat National Philharmonic, the Bega Canal Riverwalk, Prince Eugen Square and the Old Town Hall, the Temeschburg Park Complex, the Temeschburg Zoo, the Dan Păltinișanu Center, the Iulius Plaza, the Continental Tower, the Baroque Palace and the Temeschburg Stock Exchange Center.

Topography

The city's topography is almost entirely flat. The highest point in the city is at 90 meters above the city. This point is found in the east of the city near the Green Forest of Temeschburg. The city was built on swampy terrain, and as such, all highrise buildings require special foundations, hence why the Timisoara skyline never took off like Neussatz's.

The entire city is located within the Banat Plain, a part of the Pannonian Plain. The Bega, the city's main drainage channel, starts in the Rußberge, flows westwards through the city and exits through its mouth outside the city limits at Neu-Kischoden.

The city lies on a minor faultline and can experience earthquakes up to Magnitude 6 on the Richter scale.

Climate

Climate data for Temeschburg (Botanical Garden), the Banat (1990–2016)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
41.1
(106)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
11.9
(53.4)
17.6
(63.7)
22.8
(73)
25.7
(78.3)
27.8
(82)
27.6
(81.7)
24.0
(75.2)
18.1
(64.6)
10.3
(50.5)
4.2
(39.6)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
11.2
(52.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.4
(66.9)
21.1
(70)
20.4
(68.7)
16.5
(61.7)
11.0
(51.8)
5.6
(42.1)
0.8
(33.4)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
10.1
(50.2)
13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
11.2
(52.2)
6.2
(43.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −35.3
(−31.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.0
(−4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.0
(23)
2.2
(36)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.4
(4.3)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
36
(1.42)
37
(1.46)
48
(1.89)
65
(2.56)
76
(2.99)
64
(2.52)
50
(1.97)
40
(1.57)
39
(1.54)
48
(1.89)
50
(1.97)
593
(23.35)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 9.8
(3.86)
9.3
(3.66)
4.4
(1.73)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
3.7
(1.46)
7.2
(2.83)
34.4
(13.54)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 7 7 8 9 10 7 6 6 5 8 9 89
Average relative humidity (%) 90 86 79 73 73 74 73 75 76 81 85 89 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.1 92.2 155.4 186.4 242.4 262.3 300.6 280.2 217.5 177.3 86.4 56.9 2,129.7
Source: Princely Climate Administration
Temeschburg has a Temperate-Oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb. The city and surrounding region is characterized by stifling heat in summers due to warm air masses from the Adriatic Sea and harsh winters with a lot of snow that melts due to cyclones regularely. Precipitation occurs during the winter, spring and summer. Snow is common during the winter months of December and January but often thaws completely out due to warm air masses.

Demographics

The most populous city in the Banat, in 2011, the Banat Princely Bureau of Census officially counted 568,909 people living in Temeschburg.The population density was 3,446.58 people per square kilometer. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males and for every 100 females above the age of 18, there were 97.6 males.

Race and ethnicity

Boasting one of Central Europe's most multicultural communities, Temeschburg is home to many nationalities and even more languages. There are various ethnic enclaves and neighborhoods throughout the city like Hanitown and Blaškovič.

According to the Census, 545.584 (95.9%) were white, 11.947 (2.1%) were Asian, 8.534 (1.5%) were Middle Eastern and 2,844 (0.5%) were others or mixed.

Germans make up the largest white ethnicity in the city at 32% of the total population, followed by Romanians at 24%, Serbians at 22%, Hungarians at 10%, Jews at 4%, Gypsies at 3% Slovaks at 2% and Bulgarians at 1%. Other minorities such as Czech, Poles, Rusyns, Italians and French constitute together 2% of the population. 

Temeschburg's Asian community has developed recently, with most people originating from Luzon, China or Sierra. The largest Asian minority are Han, at an overwhelming 70% of the community, followed by Chinese of any origin at 25% and other groups like Thai, Korean and Japanese rounding up together to 5%.

The city is also home to a significant number of people of Middle Eastern descent, mostly Arabs, Kurds and Turks. They are among the fastest growing ethnic groups in the city and have been known as the "new" immigrants in recent years. The number is expected to rise drastically due to the recent Syrian refugee crisis.

Crime

Temeschburg has suffered a history of crime that is especially prevalent during the early 2000s. Most of the crime is done by either Gypsy or Serbian mafia, with a new Macedonian mafia arising in the unaccounted Macedonian immigrant group (counted as Serbians).

Religion

Compared to other cities, Temeschburg has a larger percentage of Catholics with 42% accounting for religious faith in the city. This higher concentration of Catholics can be attributed to the city's higher incidence of Germans and Hungarians populations who have traditionally been Catholic. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Temeschburg is the Archdiocese responsible for the entire Banat.

Orthodoxy is the second largest form of Christianity, practiced by a slim majority of Serbians and vast majority of Romanians, combining at 31%. These are split in two branches: The Romanian Orthodox Church with 19% and the Serbian Orthodox Church at 11.5%. 1.5% adhere to the Ohrid Archbishopric of the Macedonian Orthodox Church.

Greek Catholicism is the third-largest form of Christianity practiced with about 16% of Temeschburg's population. The largest denominations are Ruthenian-Serbian Catholic at 10%, Romanian Catholics at 5%, and Hungarian Greek Catholics at 1%. 4% of the population is Protestants, mostly Lutheran and Calvinist.

Almost 22.000 Jews live in Temeschburg, although over half of them are secular. Of the Jewish religious communities represented, the vast majority are Orthodox Jews.

Reflecting demographic changes, Islam, Buddhism, Zalmoxianism and other pagan religions are now also represented in the city. Temeschburg is notable for it's ban on the Church of Scientology, which had legally tried to get the city to unban the Scientologist Group, which has it's Banatian headquarters in Neussatz.

Sister cities

Sister cities