Canada or Allied Canada is a collection of six Allied States provinces, which used to be known by the same name, located in the Northern part of the North American continent. Canada consists of six provinces, namely (from West to East) Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Alberta hosts the region's largest city, Calgary, with a population of 1,1 million. The collective population of Canada is 5,994,171. Canada itself has no government, thus all provinces are governed like states and fall under the Allied States federal government. French is the most common language next to English. Canada's diversified economy is reliant upon its abundant natural resources. Canada's standard of living is one of the world's highest.
The Dominion of Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador) was unified with Canada in 1949. Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971. Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.
At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a modern nationalist movement. The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis in 1970, and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6 to 49.4 percent. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.
In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history; the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; and the Oka Crisis of 1990, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Aboriginal groups. Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force, and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the late 1990s. Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001.
With the United States being split in 2007, the world economy was severely crippled. The Canadian government could not restructure and repair their economy and thus were overwhelmed by dept. The country, however, stood strong for four years, until the Allied States' economy crashed in 2010. This led the Canadian stock markets also being virtually destroyed and forced the country into an immediate depression. Even after the EcruFox Corporation bailed the Allied States out, Canada was left in ruins. The Confederation's standard of living, between 2010 and 2011, fell to a record low. This led to the governments of the provinces and territories of Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba finally succumbing to pressure to join the Allied States as a territory and possible fully merge with it in the future. Allied Canda remained an unincorporated territory for almost a year until the Declaration of Allegiance, which made their incorporation official in 2012. The provinces of Canada now count as and are governed like states.
Government and politics
Prior to 2011, Canada had a strong democratic tradition, upheld through a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Since the incorporation of Canada by the Allied States, political tradition has been respected, however, the Queen still being heavily involved in this region, has zero actual powers. The Canadian Constitution is null and void however holds ceremonial value.
Main article: Military of the Allied States
The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: les Forces canadiennes; FC), officially the Canadian Armed Forces (French: Forces armées canadiennes), were the unified armed forces of Canada. This single institution consisted of the sea, land, and air environmental commands called the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Royal Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), which together were overseen by the Armed Forces Council, chaired by the Chief of the Defense Staff. At the pinnacle of the command structure was the Commander-in-Chief, who was the Prime Minister. Since the Declaration of Allegiance, the Canadian Forces were made part of the Allied States Military.
The current provinces and their capitals are, from West to East:
- Yukon - Whitehorse
- Northwest Territories - Yellowknife
- Nunavut - Iqaluit
- Alberta - Edmonton
- Saskatchewan - Regina
- Manitoba - Winnipeg
The Canadian economy is very much reliant on the petroleum and agricultural industries. Alberta is the largest producer of conventional crude oil, synthetic crude, natural gas and gas products in the country. Alberta is the world’s 2nd largest exporter of natural gas and the 4th largest producer. Two of the largest producers of petrochemicals in North America are located in central and north central Alberta. In both Red Deer and Edmonton, world class polyethylene and vinyl manufacturers produce products shipped all over the world, and Edmonton's oil refineries provide the raw materials for a large petrochemical industry to the east of Edmonton. Albert also contributes to the country's coal industry.
The economy of Manitoba is a market economy based largely on natural resources. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy. Other major industries are transportation, manufacturing, mining, forestry, energy, and tourism. The economy of Saskatchewan has been associated with agriculture resulting in the moniker Bread Basket of Canada and Bread Basket of the World.
Summer brings many festivals to the province of Alberta, especially in Edmonton. The Edmonton Fringe Festival is the world's second largest after Edinburgh's. Both Calgary and Edmonton host a number of annual festivals and events including folk music festivals. With a large number of summer and winter events, Edmonton prides itself as being the "Festival City". The city's "heritage days" festival sees the participation of over 70 ethnic groups. Edmonton's Churchill Square is home to a large number of the festivals, including the large Taste of Edmonton & The Works Art & Design Festival throughout the summer months.
The City of Calgary is also famous for its Stampede, dubbed "The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth." The Stampede is Canada's biggest rodeo festival and features various races and competitions, such as calf roping and bull riding. In line with the western tradition of rodeo are the cultural artisans that reside and create unique Alberta western heritage crafts.
The Banff Centre hosts a range of festivals and other events including the international Mountain Film Festival. These cultural events in Alberta highlight the province's cultural diversity. Most of the major cities have several performing theatre companies who entertain in venues as diverse as Edmonton's Arts Barns and the Francis Winspear Centre for Music. Both Calgary and Edmonton are home to Canadian Football League and National Hockey League teams. Soccer, rugby union and lacrosse are also played professionally in Alberta.
Television sitcoms Corner Gas and Little Mosque on the Prairie are both set in small Saskatchewan towns. The novels of W. O. Mitchell, Sinclair Ross, Frederick Philip Grove, Guy Vanderhaeghe, Michael Helm and Gail Bowen are also frequently set in Saskatchewan, as are children's novels of Farley Mowatt. The English naturalist "Grey Owl" spent much of his life living and studying in what is now Prince Albert National Park.
The Arrogant Worms' song "The Last Saskatchewan Pirate" about a disgruntled farmer who takes up piracy on the namesake river mentions various parts of the province such as Saskatoon, Regina and Moose Jaw. Popular Québécois band Les Trois Accords recorded a song in French called "Saskatchewan" on its first album, Gros Mammouth Album. It was the third single of that album and met moderate success in French Canada. The region is also referenced in the titular Buffy Sainte-Marie cover "Saskatchewan", by British Band Red Box; it was released as a single in 1984 and a reworked version appeared on their 1986 début album The Circle & the Square.
The Saskatchewan Roughriders are the province's only major professional sports franchise, and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation". In 2006, the founder of One Red Paperclip, Kyle MacDonald, ended his trading-game after swapping a movie role in the film Donna on Demand for a two-story farmhouse in Kipling, Saskatchewan.
Manitoban culture is a term that encompasses the artistic elements that are representative of Manitoba. Manitoba's culture has been influenced by both traditional (aboriginal and Métis) and modern Canadian artistic values, as well as some aspects of the cultures of immigrant populations and its American neighbours. In Manitoba, the Minister of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Sport is the cabinet minister responsible for promoting and, to some extent, financing Manitoba culture. The Canadian federal government also plays a role by instituting programs and laws regarding culture nation-wide. Most of Manitoba's cultural activities take place in its capital and largest city, Winnipeg.
The indigenous music of Nunavut includes Inuit throat singing and drum-led dancing, along with country music, bluegrass, square dancing, the button accordion and the fiddle, brought by European immigration. Artcirq is a collective of Inuit circus performers based in Igloolik. The group has performed around the world, including at the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, British Columbia.
The film production company Isuma is based in Igloolik. Co-founded by Zacharias Kunuk and Norman Cohn in 1990, the company produced the 1999 feature Atanarjuat, winner of the Caméra d'Or for Best First Feature Film at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival and the first feature film to be written, directed and acted entirely in Inuktitut.
Aboriginal issues in the Northwest Territories include the fate of the Dene who, in the 1940s, were employed to carry radioactive uranium ore from the mines on Great Bear Lake. Of the thirty plus miners who worked at the Port Radium site, at least fourteen have died due to various forms of cancer. A study was done in the community of Deline, called A Village of Widows by Cindy Kenny-Gilday, which indicated that the number of people involved were too small to be able to confirm or deny a link.
There has been racial tension based on a history of violent conflict between the Dene and the Inuit, who have now taken recent steps towards reconciliation. Land claims in the NWT began with the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, signed on June 5th, 1984. It was the first Land Claim signed in the Territory, and the second in Canada. It culminated with the creation of the Inuit homeland of Nunavut, the result of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, the largest land claim in Canadian history.
Another land claims agreement with the Tłı̨chǫ people created a region within the NWT called Tli Cho, between Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes, which will give the Tłı̨chǫ their own legislative bodies, taxes, resource royalties, and other affairs, though the NWT will still maintain control over such areas as health and education. This area includes two of Canada's three diamond mines at Ekati and Diavik.
The Government of Yukon recognizes several aboriginal languages as part of the cultural heritage of the territory, to wit: Tlingit, and the less common Tahltan, as well six Athapaskan languages Upper Tanana, Gwitchin, Hän, Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Kaska and Tagish, some of which are rare. As noted above, the "aboriginal identity population" makes up a relatively small part of the total population, accounting for about 25 percent. Notwithstanding, the aboriginal culture is strongly reflected in such areas as winter sports, as in the Yukon Quest sled dog race. The modern comic-book character Yukon Jack depicts a heroic aboriginal persona. By far the strongest cultural and tourism aspect of the Yukon, however, is the legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush (1897 - 1899), which inspired such contemporary writers at the time as Robert W. Service, Jack London and Jules Verne and which continues to inspire films and games from Mae West's Klondike Annie to The Yukon Trail (see Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush). Notable residents have included Leslie Nielsen, Erik Nielsen and Pierre Berton.