|Union of Mars (en) |
Union Mars (de)
Union de Mars (fr)
Motto: "Libertatem, Aequalitas, Fraternitatem"
Anthem: "La Marseilles"
Map of Mars
and largest city
Martian (38%) |
|Government||Unitary representative democracy|
|13 November 2062|
|27 March 2086|
|144,371,391 km2 (55,742,106 sq mi)|
• 2214 estimate
• 2210 census
|GDP (PPP)||2214 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2214 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Martian ducat (d) (MRD)|
The Union of Mars (German: Union Mars, French: Union de Mars) is a sovereign state composed of the entirety of the planet of Mars, located within the inner part of the Solar system. The nation is the largest known collective human nation-state, with a population of 2.426 billion and a combined total area of 144,371,391 square kilometres.
Mars is a unitary parliamentary democracy, with an Assembly as its legislature and a Prime Minister as its head of state and government. The nation's legislature, the Assembly, is elected every three years, while the Prime Minister is elected every six. The Assembly is responsible for the creation and amendment of law and policy, and the Prime Minister is responsible for the enforcement of law and the administration of government. The Prime Minister is aided in this position by the Ministries, each specific organ responsible for a certain feature of governance. Diplomacy, infrastructure, welfare, defense, justice, and economic regulation are the responsibilities of the government, and strong governmental control on the economy has led to the creation of a socialist welfare state. The current government was established in 2131, after the Unification War ended with United-Unionist victory.
Mars was first settled by humans in 2064, after a group of pacifist Germans, Britons, French, and Americans left Earth to pursue their own unrestricted socialistic lifestyle. The colonization of Mars essentially began after the Heinler-Wetstone project led to the creation of a stable, breathable atmosphere by 2077. Mars continued to receive German, British, and French settlers before the Mandate Government of Europe stopped the "illegal" colonization project in 2079, and took control of all Martian territories. A war erupted between the Mandate government and the independent settlers, with an eventual victory for the Mandate government by 2081. Constantly shifting political conditions on Earth led to a weakness in the Mandate government by 2086, and using the opportunity, groups of more belligerent settlers were able to overthrow and expunge any Earth-based claims on Mars. The planet was once again opened to settlement and extensive colonization, with a desired climatic effect stabilizing on the planet in 2096. By the end of 2098, the population of Mars reached nearly 500 million people, and a split in the systems of socialism began to emerge between certain colonial governments. The Germans and the British, remaining separate from one another, chose to create very homogeneous and efficient autocratic forms of government, while the French established a much more democratic and representative form of government, and the Americans remained generally isolated. Because of their totalitarian style of rule and staunch disposition against one another, the British and the Germans constantly waged war against one another. Remaining neutral from conflict, the French form of government grew much more appealing to the larger masses of both the Germans and the British, and a full scale revolution broke out in the British nation-states by 2113. Similar civil problems emerged in German-dominated societies by 2115, and the French form of government was adopted by the respective German and British colonies by 2118. Only four years later, in 2122, war emerged again between loyalists to the authoritarian regimes and supporters of the new democratic governments. Known now as the Unification War, the conflict consumed the entire planet for a period of about nine years. Eventually, a single, planetary government was established, and policies which infused democratic political change with lasting civil servant positions eventually saw the success of a single government. Rapid population, societal, and cultural growth across the planet led to the formation of the contemporary welfare state and the ideology of political and cultural independence from the Earth-bound predecessor peoples. By 2157, the population of Mars surpassed 1 billion people, and in 2186 it reached 2 billion.
The economy of Mars is considered to be highly developed and largely mixed market socialist. Tight government regulations on corporate systems have led to the establishment of wholly government owned economic practices in certain industries in order for the economy to remain both integrated and successful. The distance from Earth, the abundance of natural resources, and a supply of modified Earth-originated crops create a self sufficient planetary economy that consists of even portions of primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities. As there are no fossil fuels on Mars, the economic relies entirely on renewable sources of energy. Despite an abundance of natural resources and a controlled planetary environment, the Martian economy still focuses on the efficient and ecological usage of natural resources and certain industrial practices. With a welfare system that provides water, power, telecommunications, healthcare, and education universally, along with further housing, transportation, and clothing to those who cannot afford it themselves, the profits of government owned industry being reverted into the population have created an extremely equal income disparity and a society which has little value for personal gain. While citizens may not have many independent economic abilities, social and civil freedoms are extremely valued and Mars as a whole has a very accepting, open-minded, and transparent government, society, and culture.
Mars maintains contact with other human polities, namely the nation states of Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Sweden on the politically divided planet of Earth. The nation is an observer of the United Nations, and it also maintains some small-scale economic ties with certain governments on Earth as well.
The diverse topographic and ecological features have been influenced largely from the artificial human modification of the planet's mass and atmospheric conditions. Through a system of polar, magnetic, and geothermic pulsation and augmentation, a sustainable and breathable atmosphere and a gravitational field nearly equal to that of Earth's have allowed for the alteration of preexisting Martian planetary conditions and the settlement of humans. In order to allow for the continued existence of the two moons, a similar process was undertaken on each of those bodies respectively. The polar modifications of the Martian atmosphere and mass are seen as vital to the sustained survival of Earth-like habitation features on the planet, and thus, a method of permanent enhancement is constantly under research.
The majority topographic features of Mars have existed on the surface of the planet before habitation by humans. Canyons, crags, craters, cliffs, basins, plateaus, mesas, mountains, dormant volcanoes, and fjords are all common features of the diverse Martian surface. Mount Olympus is the highest volcanic feature in the solar system, at approximately 22 km in height above the surface. The Hellas Sea crater is one of the largest impact craters in the solar system, the second largest across at 2,300 km and the deepest known crater at 7.1 km in depth below the surface. The Mariner Canyon complex is among the longest networks of canyons in the solar system as well.
The climate of the planet, though not as diverse as the topography, has been entirely influenced by the habitation of humans and the augmentation of the atmosphere. Climatic features of Mars can be grouped into four distinct categories: the highlands, the lowlands, the oceans, and the poles. The highlands are areas of the planet which are too naturally high in altitude to properly field forms of life, and thus all habitation in those areas must be undertaken with the assistance of artificial environmental systems. The lowlands are areas of the planet which can easily sustain life, and these regions can be grouped into three distinct subcategories: temperate, subtropical temperate, and alpine. These three climatic zones largely depend on either the height of the location or the latitude of the location, with the temperate and subtropical temperate being the most prominent throughout the planet because of the lowland Martian tropics and subtropics. The alpine climates are spread unevenly throughout the planet, and exist largely along the rims of major impact craters and other high-altitude regions of the planet. The oceanic features of Mars are largely limited to the large impact craters which became seas, such as the Hellas Sea and the Argyre Sea, and the single true ocean, the Northern Ocean. The poles of the planet are ice capped and otherwise uninhabited much like the planets highlands, though the air is much more breathable. All of the flora and fauna of the planet imported from Earth have been selected in such a way that they cannot massively cause harm to humans, and thus, Mars has a very docile and controlled animal population.
Settlement and Early establishments
The first humans to colonize Mars did so in 2064, when a mixture of some 120,000 German, British, French, and American colonists left from Earth's rapidly decaying system of capitalism and illiberal democracy. The group landed originally in what would later become known as the Nepenthe Valley, and built a system of closed settlements that did not rely on the presence of breathable air. Eventually, by the middle of 2065, a project developed to form a breathable atmosphere and increase the planetary gravity to that of Earth standards in order for easier habitation and the creation of Earth-like environments. Known as the Heinler-Wetstone project, the plan consisted of polar stations that would relay geothermic and magnetic pulses of extreme sizes through the planet's core, thus activating a much more prominent magnetic field and artificially increasing its density in order to increase gravitational pull and atmospheric pressure. The large amounts of energy needed to fuel the pulses would be provided by a space-based array of photon-laser transitioned solar panels. The project began construction in late 2065 after extensive planning, and after nearly eight years, was completed. The process of creating the new atmosphere and creating the density took another two years, as similar, less atmospherically-based structures were fitted onto the moons of Mars in order to preserve their orbits. The second phase of the Heinler-Wetstone project involved the mass removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and its replacement with the breathable dipole dioxide. By 2077, a breathable atmosphere had been successfully generated across the entirety of appropriate altitudes on Mars. The creation of bodies of water, ecologies, climate complexes, and weather systems would take another 19 years, with the contemporary Martian biosphere project being completed by the end of the 2090s.
In 2079, the Mandate Government of Europe, a Russo-Chinese puppet government, stopped the emigration of Earthlings to Mars and seized the existing Martian colonial government and territories. The highly authoritarian government was under the order to use the efforts of the settlers to fund the "economic development" of the planet so that it could be exploited for use by Earth-based corporations. In practice, however, the Mandate government was highly ineffective and corrupt, and its attempts to simply take over the colonial institutions failed drastically. As a result, a large number of Mandate government troops were sent from Earth to "restore order" to the Martian defectors, and the increased presence of an anti-colonial Earth control posed a threat to the expansionist values of the Martians. As a result, more belligerent members of the Martian settler groups launched attacks on the Mandate troops, resulting in a short conflict which was an astounding military victory for the Earth-based Mandate. Over the next five years, however, the political situation on Earth saw the leave of many of the Mandate institutions, virtually putting any policy progress on Mars on hold. In 2086, only a tiny amount of Earth-based forces remained on the planet, and they were vastly outnumbered by Martian locals who opposed any Earth-based intervention. The same year, several separatist groups launched massive, full-scale attacks on the Mandate government's holdings on the planet, thus causing them to completely leave the planet by the end of the year. The newly found independence saw the reestablished links of Earth emigration and the divergence of multiple groups on Mars. The quick colonization of the planet saw the population reach about 1 billion only by the year 2098.
The rapid growth of the Martian populace as a whole saw the divergence of the ethnic groups which had settled the planet, and splits between the Germans, the British, the French, and the Americans quickly emerged politically. While both the French and the Americans maintained a democratic system that had been emphasized with the colonization of Mars, the British and the Germans both adopted much more authoritarian forms of government that emphasized the growth of industry and the perseverance of their specific ethnic groups rather than the value of the individual. By 2104, wars between the British and the Germans became common, and resultant of these conflicts was the deterioration of their societies respectively. Considered to be a stunt in the socioeconomic development of Mars, the series of conflicts that emerged lasted for approximately nine years before a relative peace came. In 2112, the peoples of the German and British polities began to grow annoyed with the constant conflict between one another, though early attempts at voicing opposition to the authoritarian regimes was met with social and civil aggression. By 2113, a series of revolts against the existing powers saw the topple of the regimes in the British colonies by 2113 and the German colonies by 2115. Full political change was met by 2118, though only four years later the loyalists of the formerly existing powers merged into a single group in order to end democracy and what they believed as "ineffective government". A full scale Martian war erupted in 2122, as the democrats of all the colonies fought against the authoritarians of the colonies in a battle of ideology. In 2131, the Unionists, who fought for democracy, saw victory against the authoritarians and established the government that would last beyond that of all predecessor administrations.
Unity and growth
An agreement between the ethnic groups was made in 2131 that would formally tie the governments into a single planetary organization. The island of Elysium, a primarily German-inhabited area, would serve as the national capital region, with the government based out of the city of Argos. The official spoken language of the government would be English, while the form of government adopted would be the French and American style democracy. The agreement would equally represent the four ethnic groups in the new government, and furthermore a policy of anti-discrimination was adopted and infused into government practice. The development of the socialist economy would also be undertaken in the middle of the 2130s, with policies encouraging the growth of the government's role in the planetary economy. Major improvements to agriculture, fishing, forestry, and mining were made to compliment a need-based structure of industrial economic development in urban areas across the planet. A global network of trade and communications was standardized, and many new infrastructural projects were undertaken in order to further integrate the economy and society of the planet as a whole. The use of social media and the Internet, along with the development of a unique cultural identity by the end of the 2140s, helped to bring the three major ethnic groups into a single group of people known collectively as Martians, though language barriers persist in the unitary culture. The implementation of the government economic policies saw their full effect by the beginning of the 2150s, when a massive boost in food and materials allowed for the rapid growth of the population as whole, with the planetary population reaching 2 billion by the year 2157.
Rapid economic, infrastructural, social, and cultural growth movements continued into the 2160s, the 2170s, the 2180s, and the middle of the 2190s, when many major road, rail, sea, air, and space networks saw their completion. The expansion of cities and a system of urban-based agricultural networks saw a continuance of urban lifestyles along with the efficient use of agricultural areas and the sustained necessities of the people. In the early 2190s, after the planet reached a population of 2 billion in 2187, the population began to level out as major infrastructural projects saw their completion. A shift occurred from growth to a more stable societal value of continued existence and much more relaxed cultural and social developments. By 2200, population growth had slowed considerably, and by 2210, a much more stable and sustainable rate of population growth was achieved as Martian society emerged as a single cultural body.
Mars is a unitary parliamentary democracy with a representative legislature that is composed of delegates from various subdivisions in an organ of the government known as the Assembly. According the series of enactments relating to the purpose of the government, the Assembly is considered to be the representation of the people in the administration of nation. The constitutional document states that no session of the Assembly may pass a law that future Assemblies cannot amend with the explicit exclusion of the Rights of Citizen Act, 2131, thus meaning that the only wholly solidified body of the government is the existence of the Assembly and the basic rights of the citizens.
The government of Mars is composed of the unicameral Assembly, led by the Speaker of the Assembly, and the Prime Minister, who leads the various organs of administration known as Ministries. The actions of the government as a whole are decided upon by the Assembly as a whole, while smaller, more direct actions of the government are governed by the smaller Committees of the Assembly. The process of the government and its purpose is defined in the Constitution Act, while the rights and responsibilities of the citizens are protected by the Rights of the Citizen Act. Overall, the Assembly creates enactments, amends existing policies, and approves the actions of the Prime Minister, and the body is moderated by the people with an election held every three years. The Prime Minister is responsible for the enforcement of enactments and the existence of governance, and that position is moderated by a direct vote held every six years and a system of approvals undertaken by the Assembly.
The Assembly is a unicameral, nonpartisan legislature which is composed of 2,426 Members of the Assembly, as each Martian subdivision receives one Member for every 1,000,000 citizens and subdivisions with less than 1,000,000 automatically receive a single representative. The number of Members of the Assembly changes every two years with the census, adding the appropriate number of representatives for the proportionate amount of people. Inside each subdivision, Assembly Constituencies are created according to the density of the population in the region, and as the Assembly is strictly nonpartisan, gerrymandering is not an issue with the creation of new Constituency boundaries. As the Assembly is so large, it is divided into various Committees which create policy according to the issues associated with their organ and present it to the Assembly as a whole for amendment, passage, or failure. Each Committee is composed of 35 members and creates an annual budget for the associated ministerial offices with the allocated total sum from the Assembly at Large. Not every Member of the Assembly is a member of a Committee, with chosen representatives usually being specialists in the fields of their Committee.
The Prime Minister is the head of state and the head of government, as they are the leader of the various Ministries that make up the Martian system of governance. The Prime Minister sits at the head of the Cabinet, a small council composed of the heads of each Ministry that assists in the decision making of the Prime Minister in response to legislation put forward by the Assembly or general problems of the nation as whole. The Prime Minister is allowed to create new ministries with the approval of the Assembly, though there have been no additions since 2156. In the respect to the Prime Minister, the various Ministries formulate policies of their own which are then approved by the Prime Minister in order to increase the effectiveness of the government by allowing specialists in certain fields to establish the use of the Ministries budget. The Ministers of the government are appointed by the elected Prime Minister, whose appointments are then approved by the Assembly at Large during the formation of an administration. The Prime Minister is elected by the people directly with a runoff voting system every six years. As it is the executive branch of the government, no proportional representation of the people exists, and this position within governance is largely left to the legislature as a whole.
Elections in Mars are held every three years for the Assembly and every six years for the Prime Minister. A system of run-off elections are put into place on a local level for the election of Members of the Assembly, and the same system is used on a national level for the election of a Prime Minister. As the government is nonpartisan, no specific system of political parties are allowed to outright exist within the entirety of the administration system. Instead, the Assembly, Members of the Assembly, the Prime Minister, and Ministers are all ranked according to what beliefs they most strongly represent. In the current government, 87% of all government officials are liberal socially and economically, while a further 6% are considered to be moderately liberal both socially and economically. Only 5% of the government is made up of social liberals and economic moderates, and an even smaller 2% is made up of social and economic moderates. The remaining 1% of government is composed of conservatives and more radical forms of existing ideologies. In a poll held in the November of 2013, the vast majority politicians are said to be inherently socialist, environmentalist, egalitarian, and unionist.
Law enforcement and justice
Law enforcement in Mars is particularly managed from a national level, mainly embodied in the National Police Service. The vast size of the nation means that a large portion of law enforcement is managed at a local level and funded and administrated from a national level. The policies, equipment, procedures, and training only differ based on the environment of the region they are implemented in, and therefore, all other aspects of the service are the same at any one place throughout Mars. The average national response time for the police service is typically within two minutes in an urban area, three to five in a suburban area, six to ten in a rural area, and ten to twenty in a wilderness. When searching for a specific suspect, a warrant made by a local chief of police approved by a local magistrate must be issued before the service has the right to search a property or person of interest. The use of force in subduing a suspect is only allowed if the suspect physically resists detainment or shows signs of aggression and endangerment to others. The police have the ability to detain suspects of a crime for a period of 24 hours, in which a charge must be made against the suspect by either a prosecutor or a citizen for them to be formally arrested. Upon the arrest of the suspect, the arrested is treated as innocent until proven guilty and can remain in police custody for an indefinite amount of time before standing trial. Bail may only be posted if the crime is at or lower than a Class II classification.
There are six levels of criminal classification in the Martian law enforcement system. Class I exists for petty crimes such as littering, ignoring property owners, or disturbing the peace, and these crimes are simply subject to a fine or an equivalent amount of community service upon the prosecution of an offender. Class II crimes can result in more serious consequences, such as showing signs of aggression against another individual, vandalism, destruction of property with malicious intent, or more seriously interfering with the peace, and these crimes can either be dealt with through a fine, community service, or even the detainment and arrest of an individual. Class I and Class II crimes are considered to be the threshold for serious offenses, and punishment is typically administered at a local level. A Class III crime is usually the point at which crimes become regional in punishment, with some examples being aggravated assault, intoxicated operation of a vehicle, action meant to outright offend or disturb other individuals, and major theft of property. Class III crimes are punished typically with a short prison sentence, a very large fine, or an action of societal peace (such as a restraining order or periodic community service). Class IV crimes are much more serious than those mentioned before, with examples being manslaughter, mass destruction of property, mass disturbance of the peace, and murder of emotional distress in action. Class IV crimes can only serve a prison sentence of five to ten years depending on the cause and result of the crime. Class V crimes cross a second threshold of criminal punishment, and most cases are punished with a lengthy prison sentence of up to thirty years or even death in some more heinous cases. Crimes in this classification include but are not limited to murder, premeditated murder or intent of murder, rape, and serious or life-threatening harm to one or more individuals. Class VI crimes are usually considered to be the most heinous crimes against society are are typically punished with life incarceration or death. Examples of Class VI crimes include serial rape, serial murder, mass murder in a short period, treason, and torture of an individual.
The Martian justice system is largely based off common law with a mixture of civil law implementations to better base the decision of the judge in a certain classification of legal action. In Martian law, the accused person of a crime is prosecuted either by an independent citizen or a local or regional prosecution office. Lawyers are not permitted to exist in most courts of law, and a representative of either party may only be declared if one side of the case is under physical condition that does not permit them to represent themselves to the fullest extent. The elimination of lawyers in the court permits an equal field of decision to be made by the judge as it allows for a better show of character from both sides of the case. The case is then presented to a jury of independent adjudicators, randomly selected citizens with proof of no involvement in the case, and that jury makes a decision based upon the procession of the prosecutor and the defendant. If the defendant is found guilty, then the judge of the court must create a punishment based upon the Class of the crime that the defendant has been proven guilty of. Class I and Class II crimes are both subject to fines and sentences of community service which change in severity in respect to the crime committed and the decision of the judge. Class III and Class IV crimes are subject to very heavy fines, societal actions, such as restraining orders or community education courses, or a sentence to a regionally managed prison. Class V and Class VI crimes are subject to longer to life prison sentences at a nationally managed institution or the death penalty in some more heinous cases.
Military and foreign affairs
The Martian Armed Forces consists of two specialized services branches: the Martian Naval Forces and the Martian Land Forces. The forces are managed by the Ministry of Defense and controlled by the Joint Defense Committee, which is co-chaired by the Assembly High Commissioner of Defense, the Minister of Defense, and the Prime Minister. The Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces is the Prime Minister, and the service members of both Naval and Land Forces swear allegiance, in sequential order, to the Martian people, the rights of Martian citizens, the Prime Minister, and the Assembly. The Martian government allocates the equivalent of 2.5% of the GDP towards defense spending, resulting in the total budget of the military to equal about . With an active service member count of about 19 million, the Martian Armed Forces is the 6th largest human military.
The Armed Forces are charged with the protection of the Martian people and their freedoms first, the government and its institutions second, the developed territories and properties of the Martian nation third, and the unsettled landscapes claimed by Mars fourth. Mars is not an active participant of any military organization, and as a result, there are no permanent military installations explicitly located outside of claimed and recognized Martian territories. While the Armed Forces are wholly based out of the Bastion Complex in the capital city of Argos, notable installations exist in Tharsis, Hellas, Lowell, Artica, the South Cap, and the moon Phobos. Because of its highly integrated system of branches, all military installations are technically considered to be joint bases as they typically contain elements of both the Naval and Land Forces.
The foreign affairs of Mars are managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mars is considered to be a neutral nation in most human politics, and the nation is considered to be a politically distant entity from most other human governments. Despite is policies of sustained neutrality and defense-only political action, Mars does maintain some light ties to the Earth-states of Britain, Germany, France, and Sweden.
Mars is a unitary state and its subdivisions hold relatively little political power, with the first-level divisions primarily acting as units of administration for the central government as a whole. The nation is composed of 31 countries, which serve as the first-level subdivisions, and 121 provinces existing within those countries. All countries share a system of government that serves to simply administrate the processes of the unitary government in those specific regions, with the country governments composed of a Governor, a Country Council, and a system of smaller ministerial organizations related to the Country Council. The Governor is the leader of the country's government and serves as the chairperson of the Country Council. The Country Council serves as a collective body of administrators from the Country, and its decisions are largely based on how to effectively and efficiently implement the unitary government into the specific country. The council is made up of the leaders from the Offices of administration which serve in specific areas of governance. All leader positions within country governments are elected by the local population.
The Economy of Mars is largely described as regulated mixed market with a large focus on state-controlled national companies and privately-controlled local businesses which are supplemented by the national companies. Known as Martian capitalism, the system implements a series of state-held companies involved in various large markets which require a large presence of industry to operate at a profit. All proceeds of the state industries goes towards their own expenses, the salaries of those employed by them, and reducing the flat income tax on citizens. The state then organizes this with small businesses in the various localities across Mars in order to allow for citizens to profit the most from their own businesses by removing competition from the state. Intensive nationalisation of foods, power, water, telecommunications, and transportation, alongside the limited nationalization of wholesale, clothing, and housing, creates an efficient system of economic responsibility and contributes towards a low cost of living. All actions of the government owned industries are taken in such a way that they will benefit the local communities by allowing privately-owned businesses to make a sustainable profit and providing necessities to those who would otherwise have no access to affordable necessities and luxuries. Another feature of Martian capitalism is the allowance of a regulated private industrial sector that produces a profit for the entrepreneurs and fair wages for the workers through government subsidization of certain areas of those industries which in turn is derived from the profits made by existing state industries. Along with subsidies, the government acts as a middleman of sale for mass produced goods which are then sold in areas where they would be otherwise unavailable by selling them in government wholesale stores. The "hands on" economic stance of the government in the Martian economy has resulted in a high standard of living and a low cost of living, along with criticism of low economic freedom. Mars is a welfare state, and those who would otherwise be unable to provide for themselves are given various unemployment necessities by the government. Power, water, telecommunications, garbage services, education, and healthcare are all provided universally by the government.
The Martian economy is extremely diverse, composed of a large amount of economic activities and industries because of the nation's abundant amount of natural resources, a large population, and a high level of economic development aided by government intervention. Primary industries constitute 18% of the total economy, secondary industries 35%, and tertiary industries 47%. Agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and extraction are all prominent features of the Martian primary sector. Agriculture and fishing are both privately-owned segments of the economy as a whole, and a government aided method of transportation and market syndication produces a very positive profit for localized farmers and fishermen, as goods can then be sold across much larger distances, and areas of the country without access to sufficient food production benefit from this as well. Forestry is a highly intensive feature of the economy, and as such, it experiences the most intervention from the government out of any primary sector industry. Specific areas of the nation are permitted to house forestry industries, and the use of sustainable policies of cutting prevents the mass exploitation of wood and thus the decline of the local environment. Mining and extraction are both substantially government-regulated, with most mines being owned by the government and managed locally. Extraction on Mars is of gasses which have been generated artificially, and serves to remove excesses of these particulates and to allow for the use of the elements of pollutants in a recyclable manner. Nearly all types of manufacturing are undertaken on Mars, with industrial and heavy goods manufacturing being more heavily regulated by the government than that of consumer goods. The sale of consumer goods is undertaken largely by private local wholesale retailers, and in areas which cannot provide these types of businesses, the government operates a network of wholesale retail stores which provides the goods for the citizens at an affordable price. Finance, tourism, hospitality, telecommunications, mass media, entertainment, and other tertiary industries are abundant throughout Mars, with most industries, bar telecommunications and finance, existing relatively free of direct government intervention when compared with primary and secondary economic activities.
The Martian ducat is the official currency of the nation. The ducat is issued by the Treasury of Mars, a government organ with the specific responsibilities of administration finance and the control of the currency. The ducat is based off the value of 2.5 grams of Martian standard electrum, an alloy based off of electrum with a precise and specific amount of gold, silver, and copper that create's the currency's high value. Mars is the only human nation that practices a standard based upon the worth of a specific mineral, as all other human nations use a fiat currency. The ducat can be divided into 100 florin, which primarily serves as the main unit of economic exchange between citizens. d100, d50, d20, d10, and d5 banknotes are issued, along with d2, d1, ƒ50, ƒ20, ƒ10, ƒ5, and ƒ1 coins. As of 2214, one ducat is equal in value to $57, €39, and £33, which means that one florin is equal in value to $0.57, €0.39, and £0.33.
Income and wealth equality
Mars has one of the highest average household and employee incomes among human societies, and it also held a high ranking in median household income as well. According to the Ministry of the Treasury, the mean household income was d947.387 and median household income was d842.105. The nation as a whole has one of the most secure food markets among other human nations, with typically 100% of the population having access to substantial amounts of food. Martians on average have larger dwelling spaces than any other Earth-based society and more dwelling space per person as well. The cost of living is relatively low, but this is because the government imposes high taxes and heavy subsidies on certain industries, resulting in one of the most fiscally equal human nations. Taxes are also relatively centralized, with a single tax for households that is based upon the income and equity of the household as a whole, and a single tax for private businesses that is based upon the amount of sales and their profit made as a whole.
Mars has an extremely spread amount of wealth, which is directly related to heavy government intervention in the economy. Efforts of taxation have led to a state of the economy where benefits towards industries equally benefits other people throughout the nation. With a low population growth and a stable economic growth, the overall income of citizens is increasing, and gaps between those considered to be "more wealthy than others" are decreasing steadily. While the existence of different economic classes is largely not present in the economy, some examples do exist in large urban environments based more on the values of certain peoples than the actual difference in income. Mars, as a result of this systematic level of economic-income relations towards citizens, has the lowest unemployment, poverty, income-inequality, homelessness, and indebted percentages of people out of any other human nations.
Transportation on Mars consists of three, integrated forms of transportation. Roadways on Mars, despite having large-scale planetary connections between regions, are primarily used for local or regional transportation, and as a result of the sprawling, low-density cities that make up the planet's urban areas, roadway networks are usually very extensive and sophisticated. With about 1.090 billion registered vehicles on Mars, the average household typically owns one or two vehicles for every three people. The national network of highways that cross Mars does, for the most part, not generally have any speed limits. Rail transportation on Mars is largely used for travel between countries within a distance of each other, though some services are offered which cross much greater distances, and, as with roadways, it is possible to circumnavigate the planet using the rail network. Most rail connections on the planet outside of urban areas are high speed, and to integrate regions, smaller railway stations exist at lower speeds which then connect to larger urban areas for high speed transit. Urban mass transit is also available throughout the planet, though it is most popular for smaller distances inside cities as automobiles are the preferred method of travel. Maritime aeronautics is a method of transportation used vastly for great distances of travel across the planet and the few international connections that Mars maintains. The largest ports on Mars are the Port of Argos, the Port of Ville-de-Lac, and the Port of Altengast. Mars maintains a systematically organized network of maritime aeronautical connections, with around 10,714 passenger and freight flights occurring each day across the planet. The few international connections that Mars maintains are largely to the European countries of Germany, the United Kingdom, and France.
Mars maintains an efficient and clean network of energy production that supplies the entirety of the planet's consumption with some plants not needing to meet their full capacity. Through a globally integrated system of trans-regional superconductors, excess energy produced in one country can go to help the energy required by another country. To maximize the amount of energy transported globally, all energy networks, local, provincial, and regional, are composed of superconducting energy spreading methods. The national energy network is supplied by a system of tidal, solar, wind, and hydrogen electricity generation facilities, with hydrogen power producing the largest amount of energy at 46.7% of all output. Because of strong regulations against pollution and harmful emissions, no polluting source of energy may be used throughout the entirety of the planet. As a result of this, various new forms of energy-generation were developed with funding from the government, the most significant and used of which is hydrogen diesel. Hydrogen diesel is now one of the most valuable commodities that Mars produces and consumes, with total production remaining slightly higher than total usage by government regulation. Though the facilities of the Heinler-Westone project still operate to control the global climate, the citizens of Mars are one of the most environmentally conscious among human societies.
As a whole, Mars' unique colonization, societal development, political proceedings, and economic expansion have resulted in a highly technologically developed nation. Efficiency, ecological impact, comfort, and reliability in the creation and usage of technologies has created a unique outlook towards the technology used on Mars. Most contemporary innovations were created after the nation's unification in 2131, when the political challenges that faced Martian developed subsided rapidly. Unlike most Earth nations, Martian technology is highly dependent of humans for it to function accordingly, as the government and society places significant emphasis on the value that technology should be used to benefit people as a whole, and thus, should never make the abilities of one person obsolete, but rather, enhance their abilities and allow them to function more efficiently. This is reflected in the continued development of human piloted vehicles, human controlled robotics, and human operated networks. Considered to be a "enhancement of the conventional", such works of technology strongly reflect the principle of a human-based platform of development, and thus, artificial intelligence with super human capabilities is largely considered to be unethical to most citizens of Mars. While the environment of Mars is artificially controlled, the environmental impact of technology is still an important factor in its development to the Martian people. The sustainable use of the planet's resources and the ecological awareness of contemporary society allows for the planet to continue to function sufficiently and independently for an indefinite amount of time, and the impacts that contemporary society makes on the planet are viewed, as by the population, in that they should not negatively effect the planet for future generations. Comfort and reliability are another major feature of Martian technological development, both stemming from the societal ideal of "enhanced conventionality". Comfort comes from the belief that technology should always benefit the people as a whole, and comfort among the entirety of citizens is seen as a positive effect on society as a whole, therefore, technology on Mars should aim to make the lives of all citizens more comfortable. Reliability is valued in that if one has less problems with their items, less issues are then caused by this person as they are able function without an artificial problem. As a result, technology on Mars is extremely reliable and tested thoroughly before its use within the general public.
As a result of its values of technological development, productivity efficiency in the Martian economy is, on average, twice as high as that of an Earth-based economy. Less resources are annually used per capita by Martian residents than that of Earth ones, and less issues among society have led to the average stress of individuals to be significantly lower than that of Earth residents. The economic activities on Mars are generally less resourcefully dependent than that of Earth activities, as the more sustainable use of resources on Mars creates a lesser environmental impact than those on Earth. The value of "enhanced conventionality" means that more occupations are still available to a wider range of people as they have not been made obsolete by technological advancements. Generally speaking, Martians live happier, less stressful lives than that of Earthlings in the field of reliability in their objects and the functionality of advanced technologies available to them. While some traditional items of luxury have been barred by the restrictions of environmentalism, technological development has filled the gaps of those luxuries by working at efforts around the blockades of environmentalist views and adapted to the responsibilities of upholding those values.
Mars is one of the most intensive and developed welfare states among other human nations. In 2210, the Martian government spent 54.6% of its GDP on total social services, higher than any other nation state. After the nation's unification in 2131, the welfare state saw its rise to prominence in Martian society, politics, and economics. A series of socialist economic reforms and integration efforts were largely successful, with the government playing a large part in the nation's large scale industrialisation. Several industries were nationalised, and the profits the government produced from those industries were put towards both the expenses of government operations and the reduction of taxes accordingly by spending the money on other social services. The growth and stability of the economy throughout the later half of the 22nd century led to a strong economy that positively benefited state spending on social services. A direct result of the high expenditures on public services is the high standard of living and the extremely low rates of unemployment, illiteracy, homelessness, hunger, and poor health. Also because of works of public housing, subsidized foodstuffs, universal healthcare, and universal education funded by both high taxes and government subsidies, Mars has a very egalitarian society in which there is a low amount of financial inequity and high amounts of cultural acceptance.
Mars is specifically defined as a mixed market socialist economy which supports free trade on small, local levels. Most trade which occurs nationally is managed, in some way, by the state, and the presence of state-run financial, retail, and industrial institutions reflects this. As urban areas generally have less access to their own resources, state involvement in those economies is much more intensive than it is in local, rural economies. Taxation is the largest funding force behind public institutions, with a flat income tax rate of 30% for all citizens, along with an extra 20% tax for the 1/4 of the population with the highest incomes. Payroll taxes are at 15%. In addition, a national value added tax of 15% is added to the purchases of private citizens, with the exception of food (7.5% VAT), transportation, books, and pieces of art (5% VAT).
People aged five through twelve attend compulsory primary schooling, and students in primary schooling are taught in five different lessons each day; history, language, arithmetic, science, and a specials class that differs according to the day (usually related to art, music, athletics, technology, or social values). Citizens aged three to four can also attend a state-funded day care programme, which teaches basic concepts and ideas to developing people, such as numbers, letters, and certain values. People aged thirteen to sixteen attend secondary school, which is much more focused on what a certain individual does well rather than requiring a high standard of knowledge be met for all students. Many more specialized classes are available, while some core classes are still required. People can graduate at the age of sixteen from the education system and enter a state-funded vocational school until the age of eighteen, or test into tertiary schooling that serves as a bridge between quaternary education. Tertiary schooling takes people aged sixteen through eighteen and introduces them to the freedoms of universities and presents the basics of the classes they wish to attend at quaternary educational institutions. 83% of people continue into tertiary school, and a further 92% of tertiary school students attend quaternary education. All universities and fourth-level vocational schools are publicly funded, and attendance into those institutions, as with compulsory education, is free. About 93% of people who attend universities graduate with all credits they originally signed up for.
On average, the adult Martian citizen has a higher intelligence quota than those of Earth, and education is retained better through a large amount of funding towards public museums and libraries. Owing to a smarter population, less accidents generally occur both at home and at jobs. At any point in their life, adults may return to university to pursue further education in their field, which is subsidized by the government to allow for the greatest possibilities of the population without any cost to private citizens.
Mars is consistently ranked as one of the healthiest human nations, a feat which is primarily due to its socialist distribution of age-resisting and life-lengthening medicines. Because of these technologies and their advancement, both developed before the colonization of Mars, the average lifespan of a citizen is estimated to be around 450 years in length. While over population may seem like an eminent problem, the Martian value of a small family has greatly reduced the chances of such problems occurring in the near future. Martians have an average height of 5 feet and 11 inches, primarily caused by the slightly lower gravitational pull of the planet on people. While most medicines have developed to the point where over-the-counter pharmaceuticals can help prevent and treat most diseases, injuries and some certain illnesses still require special medical attention, and as a result, healthcare institutions and emergency services are still active throughout the planet. The Martian network of healthcare institutions and emergency medical services is completely free and universal for Martian citizens. In comparison to most standard Earth hospitals and other centres of health, Mars has a much cleaner, efficient, and impacting system of hospitals and clinics which is generally at a higher standard than those of Earth.
Housing, telecommunications, and utilities
The government provides a large amount of housing to those who cannot afford it on their own. Taking from the idea of New World tract housing on Earth, the government implemented a series of suburban developments solely to house those who could not purchase their own property, and a series of community services are also provided, housekeeping, gardening, and nanny services, to those without the time or ability to preform such actions themselves. The large suburban tract homes with ample amount of garden space and community services greatly reduces crime, homelessness, and disease among the lower classes. A network of efficient mass transit systems for urban areas, funded by the national government, also helped the growth of these outer communities economically, with free transportation services provided to those who cannot otherwise afford to pay fares. Further development in these tract communities has also led to the creation of smaller urban units of governance in some more populous urban areas, with a sense of community creating the desire to remain contempt and clean as a whole. The housing projects were largely seen as a success for government intervention, with the homelessness rate in Mars consistently reaching zero in most evaluations. The services provided to these communities and the physiological development of neighbourhood relations has also played a significant role in the foundations of these tract communities and centres of success for government policy on the housing market.
Telecommunications are provided by local state-funded companies which differ for certain regions of the nation. Cellular and landline telephones, satellite television, and wireless internet are all provided by the state monopoly on telecommunications, which operates with a small fee for the combined services per household. The state monopoly has allowed for an insured low service charge by the government, along with the guarantee of privacy from the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Welfare. For those unable to afford the service, it is provided without charge. Power, water, sewage, garbage, and recycling are all provided universally by the government through local means. Land mail and parcel services are also provided, with a flat rate for provincial shipping, and a rate based on the weight of the object for services outside of the province it was shipped from.
Mars has an estimated population of 2,426,305,000 as of 2214, and a census population of 2,426,267,325 as of 2210. With this population, it is the largest known human state, followed by East Asia and India in second and third respectively. It has a population density of 16.847 people per square kilometre, though only about one third of its land area is arable. Mars has a natural growth of about 9,418 annually, which is a rate of 0.000388%, the lowest out of any known human society. With a death rate that constantly increases and decreases with its birth rate, Mars has a stably increasing population that is expected only to reach 3 billion people in about 70,000 years. With low immigration rates, this estimate has paved the way for the belief that the stability of Martian infrastructure in relation to the size of its population makes the country the most developed country out of any other human society.
In 2210, Americans made up 5% of the population, the French made up 9%, Germans made up 21%, and the British made up 27%. A number of people who claimed "Martian" ethnicity made up 38% of the population, the largest group registered in the census. Ethnically Martian people are known to posses a mixture physical features common to those of the British, Germans, French, and Americans, and are trilingual, speaking English, German, and French. With its current growth rate, ethnic Martians are expected to make up 50% of the total population by the year 2340. Ethnic Martians largely reside mostly within the territory known as Elysium, though they are also scattered across the planet mostly in urban areas. Otherwise, every other ethnic group largely resides within their own settled territories.
The five largest urban areas in Mars as of 2210 were Argos, with 25 million, Roseport, with 21 million, Hammermaid, with 20 million, Schalfhafen, with 20 million, and Kapchen, with 18 million.
The three major languages of Mars are English, German, and French, with any other languages being at such a small presence they are immeasurable. It is estimated that approximately 92% of the population can speak at least two of the languages fluently and that 67% of the population can speak all three fluently. 100% of the population has basic comprehension and understanding of two other languages not native to them. The trilinguality of the population is reflected in signs, publications, and media across the country, with all three typically appearing in most major urban areas and singular or double languages dotting areas where two groups are more populous than the third. While the population has mixed significantly since its settlement of the planet, there has been no major mixing of the languages, a feature which is unique in the history of human societies. There is no lingua franca on Mars, because of the large proportions of the population that speak multiple languages, all three are commonly found throughout the nation in interregional affairs. It is most common for politicians to speak German in the government, however, because most bureaucrats not associated with political positions are of German heritage and preferably speak Standard German.
The increasing prominence of the Martian ethnicity, which is a wholly trilingual group that prefers to speak the language of their first familial origin, has led to significant changes in the other ethnic groups in how they communicate. Most government services will communicate with citizens first in the language most prominent in that region. Educational facilities are required by law to teach all three major languages equally when on the subject of language, but other subjects can be taught in the language most prominent in the region. In the region of Elysium, where the population is largely mixed, English has become the standard first chosen language of the population in public affairs, but German and French are both spoken on smaller scale areas where the concentration of preferential speakers is higher, such as within a family or a locality.
The extreme majority of the Martian population, about 98.6% of the population, is completely irreligious and does not adhere to any spiritual or religious organizations or beliefs. The rest of the population, only 1.4%, is spiritual but not religious, and typically believes in the presence of ancestral and nature spirits that constantly shape the universe. As a result, some communities exist where the belief is concentrated, and small shrines are typically features of those communities. While Mars is largely irreligious, the Western traditions of Christianity still play a role in the beliefs of the people, typically around the concept of death. Cremation and burial are both common, along with funerals which follow the tradition of a promise of eternal peace for the individual who has passed. Marriage ceremonies and certain holidays also stem largely from Christian origin, but all are preformed without any concept of religious verification of the act. Some important holidays that come from Christian tradition are Joy Day, Rabbit Day, Carnival, Mask Night, Giving Day, and Boxing Day.