|Unitary State of Mozambique
Estado Unitário de Moçambique
|Motto: Para o Povo|
|Anthem: Pátria Amada (Beloved Homeland)
Location of Mozambique
|Ethnic groups||African 87% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena and others)
|-||Prime Minister||Valéria Ana Fernandes|
|-||Independence from Portugal||June 25, 1975|
|-||Mupato Charter||November 10th, 1979|
|-||Total|| 801,590 km2
309,496 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2009 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2009 estimate|
|HDI (2009)||0.567 (medium)|
|Currency||Mozambican ôro (
|Time zone||Central Africa Time (UTC+2)|
|Daylight savings is not observed|
The Unitary State of Mozambique (Mozambique, Portuguese: Estado Unitário de Moçambique) is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tasmania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and South Africa and Swaziland to the southwest. The capital city is Mupato, located in the southern part of the country.
Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from farther north and west. Swahili, and later also Arab, commercial ports existed along the coasts until the arrival of Europeans. The area was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1498 and colonized by Portugal in 1505. Mozambique became independent in 1975, and became the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter. The modern state of Mozambique came into existence on March 12th, 1976, after a rebellion led to a short civil war from 1976 to 1978.
The Mozambican economy is centered around agricultural and mining, as Mozambique is located in a vast and extensive area of natural wealth. The economy has grown since global political changes in the 1990s fueled foreign investment into the economic structure. The result of this was the formation of new corporations that brought new wealth to the lower class citizens by providing better job stability and introducing global demand. The national gross domestic product increased rapidly from 1993 to 2001, jumping from ô5,496 to ô12,540 ($458 to $1045). Because of this economic growth, Mozambique retains a medium Human Development Index and an improving Gini index.
The only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, with roughly half of the population speaking it as a second language and few as a first language. Languages widely spoken natively include Swahili, Makhuwa, and Sena. The largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant Muslim and African traditional religious minorities. Mozambique is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union and Southern African Development Community.
Civil War and aftermathEdit
A year after the formation of the People's Republic of Mozambique, the FRELIMO and RENAMO political groups began a civil war over the control the country. Acting as a mediator for the popular interests of the people, a young political advocate named Fabiano Álvaro Gomes began rallies in large cities calling for the people to act for themselves. The city of Mupato then declared itself territory of a new movement, the Mozambican National Front (MONAF). MONAF gained the support of many southern residents, and successfully established control over the southern provinces of the country by 1977. Gomes overturned the decisions of Samora Machel in MONAF territory, and allowed persons of Portuguese ancestry to remain in Mozambique. On September 20th, 1977, MONAF formed a provisional government for the southern provinces, and formed a rough civil militia to take back the northern territories into Mozambique's new government. The militia began a large assault on the FRELIMO and RENAMO outposts near the border of security, and successfully liberated a large portion of the population from both communists and Marxist organizations.
The liberation of these people grew national support for the MONAF government, and with that support a government was constructed to rule over the territories of MONAF officially. Portugal was the first nation to recognize the new government, followed by France and the United Kingdom in early 1978. The civil war ended when both rebel groups surrendered to the MONAF forces under the condition that their soldiers be allowed to live their lives normally. Gomes allowed the soldiers to return to their homes on February 18th, 1978, officially ending the war. The end of the war meant that Mozambique was unified under a democratic government, and this gained international attention as Italy and the United States both recognized the new government under the provisional rule of Gomes. A new government was organized in 1979, and the first elections were held for the office of Prime Minister. Fabiano Álvaro Gomes won an astounding victory of 83%, officially forming the Unitary State of Mozambique with the ratification of the Mupato Charter after his inauguration as Prime Minister.
Fabiano Álvaro Gomes administration (1980-1986)Edit
The Gomes administration led to a large change in the socioeconomic structure of post-colonial Mozambique. Before the economic changes of the Prime Minister, Mozambique's economy was controlled by three primary colonial financiers from both Britain and Portugal. The Mozambique, Niassa and Zambezia companies were liquidated by the government, and their assets transferred to control by six smaller corporations chartered by the government. The Mozambique company, however, was absorbed by the government as the national bank and post system. The Banco de Beira was then bought by the government as a way to publicly supply loans and own government land under the bank. The postal subsidiary of the Mozambique company, Correio Empresa Moçambicana, was also bought by the government for use as a public postal system. The liquidation of the companies owning Mozambique allowed for the growth of free capitalism within the country, and farming became more of a profession rather than a job after the liquidation.
On March 2nd, 1980, Prime Minister Gomes began to push for the military to become a Self Defence Force, rather than an active portion of the government. The Minister of Economics, Guiomar Martim Achilles, demonstrated that administration costs would allow for higher public welfare should the military go through such reform. Public opinion then soared for the reform of the military as a self defence force, and the Parliament held a vote on March 27th. On April 1st, the military officially was put into reservation as a self defence force rather than an active military. The government then used the surplus of funds to finance welfare support for the poorest of citizens, donating clothes, food and education. The Ministry of Education was created on June 5th in order to maintain a national schooling system. By the end of the year, over 70% of Mozambican children were enrolled in some basic form of schooling.
The Mozambican Parliament instituted a new enactment in January of 1981. The enactment created a new national health system that would allow for an increase in medical care throughout the country. The act also created the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure to manage creating a national railway network and high way system. Government spending was reaching all time highs at this point, so the Prime Minister began a series of national economic boosters to help increase the tax influx through commercial services. Funding from projects of no importance went to Mozambican corporations to increase the volume of exports. The Tete Empresa was a notable recipient of the funding increase. By the end of the year, four Mozambican companies had increased the export of mineral and industrial goods to neighboring and foreign countries. The increase in this volume of exportation allowed for the government to collect more from taxes, as the national GDP per capita had also increased.
The national railway network began construction in 1983, starting with a route from the city of Beira to Mupato. The route would cross through Inhambane and Xai-Xai, allowing for the southern coastline to easily transport goods and services to more remote locations. The railway would also boost the amount of production in the area by allowing for an increased volume of both workers and supplies. The approximate cost of the railway would be ô104,594,400 ($8,716,200), and it would be completed by the end of the Gomes administration. The construction of the railway itself proved that the new country could maintain itself and even expand to its own needs. The rail line was completed a year later in September of 1984. The Sistema Locomotor Nacional was chartered in late September to operate and privately generate revenue from the line, with the government own 40% in shares of the company.
After the construction of the rail line, growth throughout the southern parts of Mozambique began to increase. The national government instated the Promulgação de Gratuitamenteterrenos in early 1985, stating that each person in southern Mozambique could claim 20 acres of rural, undeveloped land if they lived on that plot of land for three months. The act allowed for many poor citizens in the urban areas to begin a farming based lifestyle, effectively generating revenue for the government and themselves. A direct result of the enactment was the increase in food supplies for the people who lived near the railway. Effectively, southern Mozambique continued to grow economically, raising the national income average to over $600 by the end of the year. Elections began on January 2nd, 1986, and under the Constitution Prime Minister Gomes was not allowed to run again. Elections were ended on January 20th, with young political leader Felipe Cláudio Souza taking the role of Prime Minister.
Felipe Cláudio Souza administration (1986-1992)Edit
Mass economic growth (1992-2001)Edit
Global political changes (2001-2009)Edit
World War Three and global instability (2009-2011)Edit
Politics and governmentEdit
Self Defence ForceEdit
During the Colonial Era under the Portuguese Rule, Mozambique's infrastructure was extremely under developed. This carried on into the Civil War, after which the government began the funding of new construction and infrastructure projects. The Sistema Locomotor Nacional is the primary rail network of the country, with is longest line from from Mupato, through Beira and ending in Pemba. The railway system is owned and operated by the government corporation Locomotiva Expansão SA, a company which operates the railway network at is own expense. The company makes funds by charging a light fee for the use of the system, in which heavy daily traffic and long hauling allows the company to profit lucratively without competition. The railway began construction in 1983, under the Gomes administration. The final leg of the railway was completed in 1998, running from Beira to Tete and through certain selective towns and villages.
There is a small number of highway transport systems in Mozambique, as most people use the locomotive systems as transport. However, the three main highways in the country still receive high international and domestic traffic due to Mozambique's location in relation to several other important countries. The three major highways are classified as expressway routes in Mozambique, all connecting to each other at an axial location in Beira. Route 1 runs from Malawi and Zambia to Tete, and from there it connects to the others in Beira in a southeast direction across the country. Route 2 connects South Africa with Mupato, and Mupato with the axis in Beira. Route 3 runs from East German Africa to Pemba, and from Pemba to the Axis in Beira. Smaller highway routes exist, with there being a total of seventeen in the country. These smaller routes connect the primary expressway cities with the smaller medium sized towns.
Water has been a concern since the founding of the modern state, but the problem was solved in the early 90s by the Souza administration. In 1991, desalinization plants began operation on the northern coast of Mozambique as a government venture in making water more available to the general public. The Pemba-1 Plant used the traditional method of vacuum distillation, and generated 360,000,000 liters of fresh water each day. The government calculated that they needed 25 more plants to effectively generate enough clean water for every person in the country, a project which would total to be $1.39 billion in upkeep each year. The entirety of the water pipeline network and the desalinization plants would effectively cost the government $1.46 billion to maintain, and so therefore a small water fee was put into effect for people using more than 3,500 liters a day. People would be charged 2.5% of their water usage cost to the government for using more than enough water in one month effectively. People who make under $1,000 a month and farmers, however, were exempt from this tax. The government generates $570 million annually each year from water fees, allowing the government spending into the water system to be lowered to only $890 million. This allowed the government to only spend 10.1% of its GDP in running the water system.