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West Saxon Republic
Flag of West Saxony
Flag
Anthem: 
Land of the Wyvern
WessexOrthographicProjection
Capital
and largest city
Bristol
Official languages English
Demonym West Saxon
Government Unitary Parliamentary Republic
Legislature Parliament of West Saxony
Establishment
• First Established
519
Population
• 2014 census
10,354,612
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
• Total
$422 billion
• Per capita
$40,754
HDI (2013) 0.916
very high · 7th
Currency West Saxon Pound (WSP)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
• Summer (DST)
 (UTC+1)
Date format DD/MM/YYYY
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .wx
Website
www.westsaxon.gov.wx
West Saxony, officially referred to as the West Saxon Republic, is a sovereign state located in Western Europe on the island of Great Britain. The capital is Bristol, and as of 2016, West Saxony has a total population of just over 10 million. West Saxony borders the United Kingdom to the East and a maritime border with France to the South across the across the English Channel. 

West Saxony has existed in some way shape or form almost continuously since the 6th century. Many believe it was formed by Cynric and Cerdic in 519 as the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom known as Wessex, however it is speculated that this is little more than legend. In 927, when the Heptarchy unified into a single Kingdom of the English, West Saxony remained independent having endured the war with the Danish invaders and various other conflicts with European powers. 

West Saxony is a Unitary Parliamentary Republic where the head of state is the directly elected President of West Saxony, while the government is led by the Prime Minister of West Saxony, however sovereign power is vested in the unicameral Parliament of West Saxony. The Procuracy of West Saxony is a unique organ of government that is tasked with overseeing the government's work and upholding the constitution. West Saxony has a generally neutral foreign policy stance, however has had notably radical views on many international issues in the past and currently. West Saxony is not a member of the European Union or NATO, however was a founding member of the EFTA and remains a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.  

West Saxony is a nation built upon a common Saxon and West Germanic ancestry, with traditions still handed drown from centuries ago along familial lines. Anglo-Saxon values still play a large part in West Saxon daily life, politics and cultural aspects. West Saxony is notably liberal on issues such as gender equality, racial equality, LGBT rights and environmental factors. The country has a Nordic-style extensive welfare system, which provides universal healthcare and tertiary education alongside other benefits. West Saxony is one of the 'happiest' European nations according to a poll undertaken in 2013. 

Etymology

History

Early Wessex (6th Century - 927)

According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Wessex was first founded by Cynric and Cerdic in the early 6th century, cheiftans of the Gleiwse Clan who landed on the Suðfolkshire coast. However, the specific events given by the Chronicle are in some doubt: archaeological evidence points instead to a considerable early Anglo-Saxon presence in the upper valley of the river Thames, and the Cotswolds area. The centre of gravity of Wessex in the late 6th and early 7th century seems to have lain farther to the north than in later periods, following successful expansion to the south and west. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has provided much of the information on the early Kingdom of Wessex, however archaeological evidence has found differences in claims.

In 519, the westward advance of Wessex was halted at what is now the western border with the United Kingdom. The eastward advance involved the invasion of Dumnonia (what is now Cernowshire) the homeland of the Celtic Dumnonii tribe. It is clear that neighbouring Kingdom Mercia and Wessex competed for land for as long as Mercia's existence, regularly loosing and capturing land holdings in the Cotswolds and near Bath. During the late 6th century Wessex had the hegemony over of Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, following the conquest of much of Southern Mercia and the Jutes on the Isle of Wight. This continued until the late 9th century when the ruling dynasty had a firm lineage. Viking Raids during the rule of Egbert, which led to the invasion and ousting of Egbert in favour of Alfred the Great, who led Wessex to victory, pushing back Viking Invaders from Southern Britain. 

In the late of 9th century, the Danish Army began swarming the Kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia, following their ousting from Southern England. During this period, Alfred carried out great reformations of the Wessex's government and the construction of warships organising the Wessen army. The Danish conquests had destroyed Northumbria and Anglia, and decreased Mercia by half. The Danish Forces were once again repelled.

Alfred reformed the administration of justice, issued a new law code and championed a revival of scholarship and education. He gathered scholars from around England and elsewhere in Europe to his court, and with their help translated a range of Latin texts into Old English (soon to become Wessen), doing much of the work in person, and orchestrated the composition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Even after the repell of the Great Heathen Army from Denmark, English kingdoms continued to be attack by Danish settlers. Between 913 and 918 a series of English offensives overwhelmed the Danes of Mercia and East Anglia, bringing all of England south of the Thames under King Edward of Wessex's power. Mercia and those Kingdoms north of the humber, stated that thenceforce there would be only one Kingdom of the English, Wessex however disagreed with this view, leading to the conquest of Wessex, and the loss of South Eastern England. The conflict ended in a stalemate and left Wessex independent from the Kingdom of England formed in 927. Societal and Technological developed ran at a similar pace to Englands between the 10th and 15th century, and on some accords even shared discoveries.

Middle Ages (12th - 17th century)

Industrial Revolution (19th Century)

Early Modern Wessex (20th Century)

Modern Wessex (21st Century)

Politics

Government

Political Parties

See Main: Political Parties in Wessex

Law and Justice

See Main: Law of Wessex, Supreme Court of Wessex

The Supreme Court of Wessex is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Wessex. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices which are appointed by the government, however the government is not able to interefere with the decisions of the court. 

According to a survey taken in 2013, Wessex was discovered to have lower than average crime rates when compared with other European countries. The survey showed that Wessex has low levels of burglary, car theft, or assaults, however has higher levels of drug problems. 

Law enforcement is handled by several national agencies in Wessex. The National Police Agency is a government agency concerned with police matters and day-to-day law enforcement. The National Crime Agency is a SWAT division which deals with more serious law enforcement matters and assists in counter-terrorist activites alongside the Wessish Security Service whose main responsibilities are counter-espionage, counter-terrorist activities and protection of sensitive objects and people.

Administrative Divisions

Wessex employs a three tier administrative system. The top level administrative division are Provinceswhich manage wider range services such as Schools and Transport. Wessex is divided into 12 non-metropolitan provinces, and 1 non-metropolitan province. The second level administrative division are Districts. Districts manage local level services such as upkeep of local parks or landmarks. The lowest level administrative division are Parishes.

Foreign Relations

See Main: Foreign Relations of Wessex

Wessex is an active member of the international community, and is a member of the United Nations, and a founding member of EFTA. Wessex is also a member of the OECD and the WTO.  Wessex is not a member of NATO or any major international military alliance, however remains a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.  

Wessex has an extensive network of diplomatic missions in almost every state it recognises, and most world nations have an embassy in Wessex's capital. However, Wessex does not officially recognise Israel , but recognises Taiwan,  . Wessex has notably been in opposition to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, however voted in favour of airstrikes against ISIS in Iraq in October 2014 , despite its opposition the United State's bombing of Syria. The government has classified ISIS as a major threat to public safety. 

Wessex has been in opposition of the United States for much of its history, favouring closer North American ties with Canada  which it views as more moderate progressive nation sates. A landmark visit of the American president Barack Obama in 2011 resulted in anti-american protests outside of the Presidential Residence. Wessex maintains close ties with other European states, particularly its immediate neighbour, the United Kingdom however has been vocal about opposition  

Armed Forces

LGBT Rights

Wessex has long been a tolerant state towards LGBT rights issues. Homosexuality was decriminialised in 1865, being one of the first states in Europe to do so. Wessex has been described as one of the most progressive states in Europe towards acceptance of homosexuality. In 1980 a poll found that 66% of the Wessish population believed that homosexuality should be accepted by society, this had risen to 70% in 2000 and 88% in 2013. According to the 2013 census, openly identifying LGBT individuals in Wessex make up 9% of the population. In 2013 alone, over 325 people changed their legal gender. There are strict laws regarding discrimination relating to sexuality. LGBT Pride celebrations are held yearly in June in Bristol, aswell as several other major cities throughout Wessex. 

Wessex became one of the first states in the world to legalise the right to change gender in 1981. In 1997 Wessex allowed same-sex couples to register for Civil Partnerships, and later legalised Same-Sex Marriage in 2009 being the eigth country in the world to do so. 

Geography

Physical Geography

Flora and Fauna

Animal and Planet diversity is modest, considering Wessex's small area, and the island of Great Britain's small area. Rodents make up 40% of the Island of Great Britain's wild mammal species. These include, Squirrels, Mice, Voles, Badgers and Rats. Wessex also has an abundance of rabbits, hares, hedgehogs, moles, and several species of Bat. Carniverous mammals include the Badger, Fox, Otter, Weasel and Stoat. Several species of Whale, Dolphin, and Seal are found around the Wessen, of which Bottlenose Dolphins are the most common.

The largest land-based wild animals in Wessex are currently Deer. The deer population is mostly made up of Red Deer, Roe Deer, and Fallow Deer. The deer has been named Wessex's 'favourite animal' due to it's commoness.The largest biodiversity sector is Birdlife, with over 500 common species in Wessex and the British Isles. The most prominent of these are Pigeons, Sea Gulls, Sparrows, Ducks, Pheasants, and many numerous species of Gull, Owl, and Finches, aswell as the most common bird of prey in Wessex, the Buzzard. Less numerous species are that of Grouse, Eagle and Doves

Climate

Wessex has an Oceanic classified climate, and experiences cool winters with warmer summers and relatively high levels of precipitation all year round. Annual rainfall is approximately from 1,000 millimetres to 2,000 millimetres. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation. They experience the highest summer maximum temperatures, but winter minimum are colder than the coast. Snowfalls are more frequent in comparison to the coast, but less so in comparison to higher ground, however Snowfall is largely rare.  

Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor, Dartmoor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of Wessex. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures, especially in winter, and it has slightly lower maximum temperatures in the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of Wessex, and they receive the most sunshine. The average temperature for Summers in Wessex is atleast 19 Degress Celsius, while in Winter the average temperature is around 4 to 5 Degress Celsius, however it can reach as low as -3 Degress Celsius. The highest every recorded temperature in Wessex was in 1976, the hottest summer on record in both Wessex and the United Kingdom, with a temperature of 35.9 Degrees Celsius at its maximum, and no rain for 45 days. 

Economy

Wessex's economy is characterised by a highly productive workforce, high GDP and exports per capita. Wessex's main imports are raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, and oil products. Its main exports are machinery and equipment, chemicals, finished diamonds, metals and metal products, and foodstuffs.

The Wessish economy is heavily service oriented however has recently diversified into a larger Quaternary centre with the development of Research & Development, Technology and Pharmaceutical industries. Wessex has become a major centre for scientific development and technology in Europe.

Wessex is not a member of the European Union however is a member of the European Economic Area and the European Free Trade Agreement. The currency is the Crown, which has been in use since in it's current format since the early 20th century.

Wessex was the second country in the world to undergo an Industrial Revolution during the 19th century both due to its proximity to the United Kingdom and the two states' close economic and trading ties during the period. Major population centres rapidly developed mining and steelmaking which flourished until the mid-20th century. Other major industrial developments included Tin mining and Textile production.

Demographics

Population

As of 2014, Wessex has a total population of 10.3 million people. Wessex experienced rapid population growth during the beginning of the 20th century, however this was greatly affected by the Second World War between 1940 and 1960, and a severe decrease occured. During the latter half of the 20th century, population increased slowly, and after having reached pre-war levels by the end of the 1960's. During the 1980's, with Wessex's membership in the European Economic Area, population rose significantly with the number of foreign nationals and immigrants in Wessex increasing due to largely open border policies. An ageing population in recent years have caused a levelling off of population growth, and many predict to see a reduction in years to come.

Ethnicity

The majority of Wessish people can trace their ancestry back to the Anglo-Saxons who settled in the British Isles before the 7th century. Additionally, a sizeable proportion are descended from indigenous Celtic people who had inhabited Brtiain since the Stone Age. The oldest ethnic group in Wessex are the Celtic people inhabiting the far western tip of Cornwall.

Wessex has experience small-scale non-white immigration since the beginning of the 20th century, the largest percentage of these are immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, including Pakistani and Punjabi peoples. Additionally, Wessex has experienced immigration from the Caribbean, Africa and other parts of Asia. Migration from European states in Central and Eastern Europe since 2004 has resulted in growth in these population groups but. Significant economic migration particularly from Poland and Slovakia following trends in the majority of Western Europe.

Language

The de facto official language of Wessex is English. Approximately 89% of Wessex's population are monolingual English speakers, with remaining 11% speaking other languages in addition to English. According to a 2015 survey the most spoken non-native languages in Wessex included Polish, Urdu, Punjabi, Korean and Slovakian. The western-most province of Wessex, Cornwall, is home to native Celtic-language speakers. Cornish is spoken by approximately 5,000 people and is recognised as a co-official language by the provincial government.

It is compulsory for students to study atleast one other language until they are 18. French, German and Spanish are the most popular languages taken by students. Schools in Cornwall teach children the Cornish language up until the age of 16 in an initiative by the Cornish government to stop the language dying out.

Religion

Christianity represents the largest religion in Wessex, with 34% regarding themselves as Protestant and 10% Catholic. Islam is also a major minority religion, at 5% in 2014, alongside Hinduism and Judaism at 2%. The remainder of the population, 47%, regard themselves as Irreligious, or followers of Other religious groups.  In a 2010 poll, 17% answered yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?". Less than 4% of the Church of Wessex's membership attends public worship during an average week, about 2% are regular attendees. Some scholars consider the nation to be a place where religion is regarded with “benign indifference.”

Wessex was Christianised from Germanic Paganism during a long period, not final until the 1100's. Since the 16th century, Wessex has been predominantly Protestant. Religion is generally seen as a taboo subject in Wessex, with many not involving themselves in religious activities. Religious fanatics are seen as pariahs, and religious values have little place in politics or political discourse. Political parties which advocate a paticular religion were outlawed under the Secularism Act of 1919.

Infrastructure

Healthcare

Education

Science and Technology

Transport

The country's road network totals . As of 2016 there are approximately 8 million licensed vehicles in Wessex. All public transport services in Wessex are publicly funded and operated by the Wessex Public Transport Corporation and is highly developed, consisting of high speed trains, buses and trams. Wessex has a railway network of 389 miles, consisting of two major electrified high-speed intercity lines and local commuter lines. The Bristol Area Rapid Transit (BaRT) is the commuter rail service for the capital and its surrounding urban area, it has been free at time of use since 2009 in an effort to reduce traffic congestion in the city.

Communications

See Main: Media in Wessex

Energy

Culture

Art

Cuisine

Literature

Music

Media

Sport

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