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Yuma German language

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Yuma German
Jumadaitsh
Spoken in Eastern Rio Blanco
Ethnicity German Rioblancoans
Native speakers 13,500 L1 (2012 census)
16,835 L1 (est.)
34,915 L2  (2016)
Language family
Indo-European
  • Germanic
    • West Germanic
      • High German
        • West Central German
          • Rhine Franconian
            • Palatine German
              • Yuma German
Official status
Regulated by Jumadaitsh Institut
Language codes
ISO 639-2 ymd
ISO 639-3 ymd
Yuma German speakers in Rio Blanco

Yuma German speakers in Rio Blanco, as of 2012.

Yuma German (Jumadaitsh, Daitsh; IPA: /ˌjuːmaˈdaɪʧ/) is a variety of West Central German spoken by Evangelical Lutheran groups in eastern Rio Blanco, mainly Yuma and El Paso, closely related to the Palatine dialects.

Comparisons with Standard German

As in Standard German, Yuma German uses three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). Pronouns inflect for four cases, as in Standard German, but the nominative and accusative articles and adjective endings are the same, e.g., "der" in Yuma German does not become "den", unlike in High German.

Pronunciation

Vowels

  • /œ/ > /o/ Example: Köpfe > Kof
  • /ɛ/ > /æ/ Example: schädigen > shädige ([ˈʃɛːdɪɡən] > [ˈʃæːdɪɡɐ])
  • /øː/ > /oʊ/ Example: schön > shoon
  • /ʏ/ > /ʊ/ Example: dünn > dun
  • /yː/ > /uː/ Example: Kühe > Kuhe
  • /aʊ/ > /ɒ/ Example: auch > och
  • /ɔʏ/ > /aɪ/ Example: neu > nai
  • /aɪ/ > /ɛɪ/ Example: Reise > Ryze
  • final /ə/ > /ɐ/ (in some speakers only, and generally only with feminine and plural endings): eine gute Frau (Middle High German: eine gutiu Frouwe) > aine gute Fro. Generally mute if preceded by a vowel.

Consonants

  • final /n/, /t/ and /d/ generally disappears, including in infinitives. Example: waschen [ˈva.ʃən] > washe [ˈva.ʃə]; er antwortet > er antworta
  • /pf/ > /f/ Example: Pfarrer [ˈpfaː.rər] > Farrer [ˈfaː.rɐ]
  • final /r/ > /ɐ/ Example: Herz > Haats.
  • /r/ in all other positions was originally gutturalized (/ʀ̥/). Today most speakers have migrated to have an American /ɹ/.
  • /s/ is never voiced (always like the first ⟨s⟩ in the English Susie, never like the second).
  • final /ts/ > /s/ with some speakers. Example: [ˈhoːlts] > [ˈhoːls]
  • final /ŋ/ > /n/ Example: [ˈtsuːˌnaɪɡʊŋ] > [ˈtsuːˌnaɪɡʊn]
  • final /gt/, /gd/, /kt/ or /kd/ > /t/
  • mute ⟨h⟩ is generally dropped. Example: sehen > zeen
  • final /ç/ > /x/ with most speakers. Example: [mɪlç] > [mɪlx]
  • the ⟨c⟩ in the compounds ⟨sch⟩ and ⟨tsch⟩ is dropped.

Examples

Lord's Prayer
Yuma German Penn. German Writing system 2 Modern Palatinate German Modern German (standard wording) English (BCP)

Unzer Vater im Himmel,
Dei Name los heilich sy
Dain Rych komm,
Dain Will geshee,
of die Erde, wi im Himmel.
Unz'er¹ dylich Brot gib haite,
un vergib unz'er Shul,
wi och wir fergiben unzere Shuldiger.
Und fuhr'unz nicht in Fersuche,
aver erloos'unz von dem Boose.

Amen.

Unser Vadder im Himmel,
dei Naame loss heilich sei,
Dei Reich loss komme.
Dei Wille loss gedu sei,
uff die Erd wie im Himmel.
Unser deeglich Brot gebb uns heit,
Un vergebb unser Schulde,
wie mir die vergewwe wu uns schuldich sinn.
Un fiehr uns net in die Versuchung,
awwer hald uns vum ewile.

Amen.

Unser Vadder im Himmel,
Dei Name sell heilich sei,
Dei Reich sell kumme,
Dei Wille sell gschehe
uf de Erd wie im Himmel.
Geb uns heit das Brot, was mer de Daach brauchen,
Un vergeb uns unser Schuld,
wie mir denne vergewwe, wo an uns schuldich worre sin.
Un fiehr uns nit in Versuchung,
awwer rett uns vum Beese.

Amen.

Vater Unser im Himmel,
geheiligt werde dein Name,
Dein Reich komme.
Dein Wille geschehe,
wie im Himmel, so auf Erden.
Unser tägliches Brot gib uns heute,
Und vergib uns unsere Schuld,
wie auch wir vergeben unseren Schuldigern.
Und führe uns nicht in Versuchung,
sondern erlöse uns von dem Bösen.

Amen.

Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.

Amen.

¹Contraption of unz unzer ("us our"), applied for euphonic reasons. Pronounced /ˈʊnzɛˌɐ/.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1
Yuma German Standard German English

All Menshe sin fry un glaich an Wurde un Ryten geborn. Zi sin mit Fernuft un Gewisse begaat un soll ynander im Geist der Broodershäf begeene.

Alle Menschen sind frei und gleich an Würde und Rechten geboren. Sie sind mit Vernunft und Gewissen begabt und sollen einander im Geist der Brüderlichkeit begegnen.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

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