Grand Marshal
Zhào Guǎngpíng
Zhao Guangping.jpg
Seal of the Premier of Manchuria
Supreme Leader of the Manchu Republic
In office
14th July 19171 – 21st April, 1929
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Liang Pufang
In office
11th December 19442 – 22nd January, 1945
Preceded by Liang Pufang
Succeeded by Qian Wanyong
Leader of the Manzuxiehui
In office
14th July 1917 – 22nd January, 1945
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Qian Wanyong
Personal details
Born Zhao Guangping
April 14th, 1878
Flag of the Qing dynasty Harbin, Manchuria, Qing Dynasty
Died 22nd January, 1945
Flag of Manchu Revolutionary National Congress Harbin, Second Manchu Republic
Political party Flag of Manchu Revolutionary National Congress Manzuxiehui
Spouse(s) Qin Quan
Luo Ying3
Wei Chan3
Children Zhao Zhanli
Zhao Xiaosong
Religion Manchu Shamanism
Military service
Allegiance Flag of Manchuria Manchuria
Service/branch Manchu National Army
Years of service 1916-45
Rank Supreme Leader rank Grand Marshal
Commands All
Battles/wars Manchu-Chinese War
Manchu Revolution
1 First Manchu Republic, 2 Second Manchu Republic, 3 Concubines

Zhào Guǎngpíng (Chinese: 趙光屏, Chao Kuang-P'ing; April 14th, 1946 - 22nd January, 1945, aged 67) was a Manchu revolutionary nationalist who led the First and Second Manchu Republic's from 1917-1929 and 1944-45 respectively, as well as being the founder of the Manzuxiehui. He is also known as Zhao Xībin and Aleksey Kozlovsky. Zhao is considered the founding father of Manchuria and remains a prominent figure in Manchurian nationalism. He was referred to as the "Zuigao Lingxiu" (supreme leader").

Zhao was born in Harbin in 1878 into an ethnic Manchu noble family. Having been a member of the New Army under the Qing Dynasty following the Xinhai Revolution Zhao took power in the Heilongjiang province and the surrounding area, coming into conflict with the Fengtian Clique backed by Japan. In 1916 Zhao proclaimed the creation of the Manchu Republic and in 1918 following the October Revolution started to favour ties with the Bolsheviks in Russia. Under Zhao a cohesive nation-state was created as the Manchu Republic modernised, with Zhao professing a similar idealogical direction to Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emphasising nationalist, statist policies.

However, worsening relations with Japan as well as the ascension of Joseph Stalin within the USSR and his support for the Chinese Kuomintang saw Zhao diplomatically and militarily isolated, leading to the Manchu-Chinese War in 1929. Zhao and his government fled into the USSR where they continued to claim sovereignty over Manchuria in exile. In 1944 Zhao and the remnants of his former government led the Manchu Revolution within Manchukuo where he formed the Second Manchu Republic as its Premier. However only a month after taking power he was killed by a Japanese agent, and a few months after that his republic was invaded by the USSR. His body was subsequently embalmed by the Communist Party of Manchuria and continue's to be on display in a mausoleum.


Zhao's birth name was Zhào Xībīn (traditional Chinese: 赵西镔; Wade-Giles: Chao Hsi-Pin; Zhuyin: ㄓㄠˋ ㄒㄧ ㄅㄧㄣ). however he rarely used this name in public.His courtesy name was Zhào Guǎngpíng (traditional Chinese; 趙光屏; Zhuyin: ㄓㄠˋ ㄍㄨㄤ ㄆㄧㄥˊ) of which he was commonly reffered to in Manchuria and the rest of the world. Throughout his lifetime western sources generally called him by the Wades-Giles romanticisation of his name, Chao Kuang-P'ing. During his time living in the Soviet Union he took the Russian name of Aleksey Kozlovsky (Алексей Козловский) which the Soviet press continued to refer to him as until his death. In the west he was referred to as the "Manchu Bolshevik" or the "Red Marshal" whilst in Manchuria he was known as the Zuìgāo Lǐngxiù (最高領袖; Tsui-Kao Linghsiu; ㄗㄨㄟˋ ㄍㄠ ㄌㄧㄥˇ ㄒㄧㄡˋ ), the "Supreme Leader". When he was studying in Japan he adopted the name Hiro Gamen (Kanji: 広画面).

Early life

Military career

First Manchu Republic

In exile

Second Manchu republic and death


Views and beliefs

Personal life

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